Abstract: Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.
Keywords: Panax ginseng; influenza A virus; epithelial cells; oxidative stress; interferon
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Lee, J.S.; Hwang, H.S.; Ko, E.-J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Kwon, Y.-M.; Kim, M.-C.; Kang, S.-M. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection. Nutrients 2014, 6, 517-529.
Lee JS, Hwang HS, Ko E-J, Lee Y-N, Kwon Y-M, Kim M-C, Kang S-M. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection. Nutrients. 2014; 6(2):517-529.
Lee, Jong S.; Hwang, Hye S.; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kwon, Young-Man; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo. 2014. "Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection." Nutrients 6, no. 2: 517-529.