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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 3981-4001; doi:10.3390/nu6103981

Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

1
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Prof. Lineu Prestes Av. 2415, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil
2
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry/Immunology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Bandeirantes Av. 3900, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049-900, Brazil
3
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Prof. Lineu Prestes Av. 1524, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil
4
School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Arlindo Bettio Av. 1000, Sao Paulo, SP 03828-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
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Abstract

This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05). Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n) (p < 0.05), increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05) and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal muscle injury; repair; leucine supplementation; connective tissue; transforming growth factor-β receptor type I; Smad2/3 skeletal muscle injury; repair; leucine supplementation; connective tissue; transforming growth factor-β receptor type I; Smad2/3
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira, M.G.; Silva, M.T.; Carlassara, E.O.C.; Gonçalves, D.A.; Abrahamsohn, P.A.; Kettelhut, I.C.; Moriscot, A.S.; Aoki, M.S.; Miyabara, E.H. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3981-4001.

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