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Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 221-230; doi:10.3390/nu6010221
Article

Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Adults

1
, 2,* , 1
, 3
, 4
 and 2
1 Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan 2 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan 3 National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan 4 Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 15 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
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Abstract

Here, we aimed to examine the associations between levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and inflammatory cytokines in healthy Japanese adults. A total of 95 healthy adults (61 women; age range 21–69 years) participated in our study. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits. Total percent body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed objectively using an activity monitor for 7 days. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 34.7 nmol/L, and 83 subjects had 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum 25(OH)D level was positively related to plasma IL-17 level (β = 0.26, p = 0.025), after adjustment for gender, age, vitamin D intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and percent body fat. This relationship remained statistically significant (β = 0.28, p = 0.019) even after additional adjustment for MVPA. However, no significant association was found between serum 25(OH)D level and plasma IFN-γ or IL-6 levels. In conclusion, this study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy Japanese adults. Serum 25(OH)D level was positively related to IL-17 level, independent of physical activity.
Keywords: vitamin D; interferon-γ; interleukin-6; interleukin-17; physical activity vitamin D; interferon-γ; interleukin-6; interleukin-17; physical activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, X.; Cao, Z.-B.; Zhang, Y.; Ishimi, Y.; Tabata, I.; Higuchi, M. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2014, 6, 221-230.

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