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Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 221-230; doi:10.3390/nu6010221
Article

Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Adults

1
,
2,* , 1
,
3
,
4
 and
2
1 Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan 2 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan 3 National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan 4 Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 15 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
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Abstract

Here, we aimed to examine the associations between levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and inflammatory cytokines in healthy Japanese adults. A total of 95 healthy adults (61 women; age range 21–69 years) participated in our study. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits. Total percent body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed objectively using an activity monitor for 7 days. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 34.7 nmol/L, and 83 subjects had 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum 25(OH)D level was positively related to plasma IL-17 level (β = 0.26, p = 0.025), after adjustment for gender, age, vitamin D intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and percent body fat. This relationship remained statistically significant (β = 0.28, p = 0.019) even after additional adjustment for MVPA. However, no significant association was found between serum 25(OH)D level and plasma IFN-γ or IL-6 levels. In conclusion, this study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy Japanese adults. Serum 25(OH)D level was positively related to IL-17 level, independent of physical activity.
Keywords: vitamin D; interferon-γ; interleukin-6; interleukin-17; physical activity vitamin D; interferon-γ; interleukin-6; interleukin-17; physical activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sun, X.; Cao, Z.-B.; Zhang, Y.; Ishimi, Y.; Tabata, I.; Higuchi, M. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2014, 6, 221-230.

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