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Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 2860-2879; doi:10.3390/nu5082860
Review

Regulation of Vitamin C Homeostasis during Deficiency

,
 and
*
Section of Experimental Animal Models, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ridebanevej 9, Frederiksberg C 1870, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health)
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Abstract

Large cross-sectional population studies confirm that vitamin C deficiency is common in humans, affecting 5%–10% of adults in the industrialized world. Moreover, significant associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality have consistently been observed. However, the absorption, distribution and elimination kinetics of vitamin C in vivo are highly complex, due to dose-dependent non-linearity, and the specific regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Particularly, little is known about how adaptive mechanisms during states of deficiency affect the overall regulation of vitamin C transport in the body. This review discusses mechanisms of vitamin C transport and potential means of regulation with special emphasis on capacity and functional properties, such as differences in the Km of vitamin C transporters in different target tissues, in some instances demonstrating a tissue-specific distribution.
Keywords: vitamin C transport; sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, SVCT1 and SVCT2; glucose transporters (GLUTs); regulation of transport vitamin C transport; sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, SVCT1 and SVCT2; glucose transporters (GLUTs); regulation of transport
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Lindblad, M.; Tveden-Nyborg, P.; Lykkesfeldt, J. Regulation of Vitamin C Homeostasis during Deficiency. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2860-2879.

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