Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1071-1080; doi:10.3390/nu5041071
Review

Effect of Diets Differing in Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Review of Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trials

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Received: 6 February 2013; in revised form: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Despite a considerable amount of data available on the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) or load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in aggregate, the area remains unsettled. The aim of the present review was to summarize the effect of diets differing in GI/GL on CVD risk factors, by examining randomized controlled-feeding trials that provided all food and beverages to adult participants. The studies included a low and high GI/GL diet phase for a minimum of four weeks duration, and reported at least one outcome related to CVD risk; glucose homeostasis, lipid profile or inflammatory status. Ten publications representing five trials were identified. The low GI/GL compared to the high GI/GL diet unexpectedly resulted in significantly higher fasting glucose concentrations in two of the trials, and a lower area under the curve for glucose and insulin in one of the two studies during an oral glucose tolerance test. Response of plasma total, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was conflicting in two of the studies for which data were available. There was either weak or no effect on inflammatory markers. The results of the five randomized controlled trials satisfying the inclusion criteria suggest inconsistent effects of the GI/GL value of the diet on CVD risk factors.
Keywords: glycemic index; GI; glycemic load; GL; controlled-feeding trial; cardiovascular disease; CVD; glucose; lipids; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kristo, A.S.; Matthan, N.R.; Lichtenstein, A.H. Effect of Diets Differing in Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Review of Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trials. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1071-1080.

AMA Style

Kristo AS, Matthan NR, Lichtenstein AH. Effect of Diets Differing in Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Review of Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trials. Nutrients. 2013; 5(4):1071-1080.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kristo, Aleksandra S.; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Lichtenstein, Alice H. 2013. "Effect of Diets Differing in Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Review of Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trials." Nutrients 5, no. 4: 1071-1080.

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