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Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction
Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND 58201, USA
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55108, USA
Office of National Programs, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 21769, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2013; in revised form: 10 February 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Abstract: Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.
Keywords: fish; cardiovascular disease; omega-3 fatty acids; EPA; DHA aquaculture
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MDPI and ACS Style
Raatz, S.K.; Silverstein, J.T.; Jahns, L.; Picklo, M.J., Sr. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1081-1097.
Raatz SK, Silverstein JT, Jahns L, Picklo MJ, Sr. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction. Nutrients. 2013; 5(4):1081-1097.
Raatz, Susan K.; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J., Sr. 2013. "Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction." Nutrients 5, no. 4: 1081-1097.