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Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5012-5030; doi:10.3390/nu5125012
Article

Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children

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1 School of Natural Sciences, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Av. De la Ciencia S/N, Juriquilla, Querétaro 76230, Mexico 2 Research and Development Center for Chronic Diseases (Cindetec) A.C., Jurica 122, Parque Industrial Querétaro, Querétaro 76220, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
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Abstract

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.
Keywords: children; micronutrients; obesity children; micronutrients; obesity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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García, O.P.; Ronquillo, D.; del Carmen Caamaño, M.; Martínez, G.; Camacho, M.; López, V.; Rosado, J.L. Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children. Nutrients 2013, 5, 5012-5030.

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