Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5012-5030; doi:10.3390/nu5125012
Article

Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children

1,* email, 1email, 1,2email, 1email, 1email, 1email and 1,2email
Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.
Keywords: children; micronutrients; obesity
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [929 KB, uploaded 10 December 2013 15:23 CET]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

García, O.P.; Ronquillo, D.; del Carmen Caamaño, M.; Martínez, G.; Camacho, M.; López, V.; Rosado, J.L. Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children. Nutrients 2013, 5, 5012-5030.

AMA Style

García OP, Ronquillo D, del Carmen Caamaño M, Martínez G, Camacho M, López V, Rosado JL. Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children. Nutrients. 2013; 5(12):5012-5030.

Chicago/Turabian Style

García, Olga P.; Ronquillo, Dolores; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L. 2013. "Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children." Nutrients 5, no. 12: 5012-5030.

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert