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Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5031-5045; doi:10.3390/nu5125031
Review

Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

1,* , 1,2
 and 1
Received: 6 June 2013; in revised form: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [278 KB, uploaded 12 December 2013]
Abstract: Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage.
Keywords: Vitamin B12; elderly; Vitamin B12 deficiency; diagnostic of Vitamin B12 deficiency; brain atrophy; neuroenhancement Vitamin B12; elderly; Vitamin B12 deficiency; diagnostic of Vitamin B12 deficiency; brain atrophy; neuroenhancement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gröber, U.; Kisters, K.; Schmidt, J. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance. Nutrients 2013, 5, 5031-5045.

AMA Style

Gröber U, Kisters K, Schmidt J. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance. Nutrients. 2013; 5(12):5031-5045.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim. 2013. "Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance." Nutrients 5, no. 12: 5031-5045.



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