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Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice
Laboratorio Medicina de Conservación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, IPN, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, Unidad Casco de Santo Tomas, México D.F. 11340, Mexico
Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Ex-Hacienda de la Concepción, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42080, Mexico
Secretaria de Investigación y Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, "Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo", Boulevard Tepic-Xalisco S/N. Tepic, Nayarit 28000, Mexico
Laboratorio de Genética, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Av. Wilfrido Massieu, Unidad A. López Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07700, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2013; in revised form: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Abstract: Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.
Keywords: prickly pears; anticlastogenic capacity; micronucleus assay; methyl methanesulfonate
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Madrigal-Santillán, E.; García-Melo, F.; Morales-González, J.A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, P.; Muñoz-Juárez, S.; Zuñiga-Pérez, C.; Sumaya-Martínez, M.T.; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E.; Hernández-Ceruelos, A. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4145-4158.
Madrigal-Santillán E, García-Melo F, Morales-González JA, Vázquez-Alvarado P, Muñoz-Juárez S, Zuñiga-Pérez C, Sumaya-Martínez MT, Madrigal-Bujaidar E, Hernández-Ceruelos A. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4145-4158.
Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria T.; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra. 2013. "Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4145-4158.