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Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease
Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2012; in revised form: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Abstract: The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed.
Keywords: intestinal microbiota; inflammation; disease susceptibility; nutrition
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Brown, K.; DeCoffe, D.; Molcan, E.; Gibson, D.L. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1095-1119.
Brown K, DeCoffe D, Molcan E, Gibson DL. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease. Nutrients. 2012; 4(8):1095-1119.
Brown, Kirsty; DeCoffe, Daniella; Molcan, Erin; Gibson, Deanna L. 2012. "Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease." Nutrients 4, no. 8: 1095-1119.