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Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2012; in revised form: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Abstract: There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet.
Keywords: infant; breastfeeding; formula feeding; weaning; programming; lifecourse
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MDPI and ACS Style
Robinson, S.; Fall, C. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence. Nutrients 2012, 4, 859-874.
Robinson S, Fall C. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence. Nutrients. 2012; 4(8):859-874.
Robinson, Siân; Fall, Caroline. 2012. "Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence." Nutrients 4, no. 8: 859-874.