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Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders
Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Campus, Western Cape Province 7500, South Africa
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Campus, Western Cape Province 7500, South Africa
Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, Western Cape Province 7500, South Africa
Neurobehavioral Research Inc., 1585 Kapiolani Blvd, Honolulu, HI 96814, USA
Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Western Cape Province 7935, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2012; in revised form: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Abstract: Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD), but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD) (n = 81) and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD) (n = 81), matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038) s-25(OH)D (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake) were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 29.9 ng/mL) were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013) in the AUD group (90%) compared to the non-AUD group (70%). All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method). Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.
Keywords: vitamin D; calcium; adolescent; alcohol; skeletal health
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MDPI and ACS Style
Naude, C.E.; Carey, P.D.; Laubscher, R.; Fein, G.; Senekal, M. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1076-1094.
Naude CE, Carey PD, Laubscher R, Fein G, Senekal M. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders. Nutrients. 2012; 4(8):1076-1094.
Naude, Celeste E.; Carey, Paul D.; Laubscher, Ria; Fein, George; Senekal, Marjanne. 2012. "Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders." Nutrients 4, no. 8: 1076-1094.