Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1076-1094; doi:10.3390/nu4081076
Article

Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders

1 Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Campus, Western Cape Province 7500, South Africa 2 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Campus, Western Cape Province 7500, South Africa 3 Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, Western Cape Province 7500, South Africa 4 Neurobehavioral Research Inc., 1585 Kapiolani Blvd, Honolulu, HI 96814, USA 5 Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Western Cape Province 7935, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2012; in revised form: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
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Abstract: Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD), but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD) (n = 81) and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD) (n = 81), matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038) s-25(OH)D (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake) were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 29.9 ng/mL) were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013) in the AUD group (90%) compared to the non-AUD group (70%). All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method). Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.
Keywords: vitamin D; calcium; adolescent; alcohol; skeletal health

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MDPI and ACS Style

Naude, C.E.; Carey, P.D.; Laubscher, R.; Fein, G.; Senekal, M. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1076-1094.

AMA Style

Naude CE, Carey PD, Laubscher R, Fein G, Senekal M. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders. Nutrients. 2012; 4(8):1076-1094.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naude, Celeste E.; Carey, Paul D.; Laubscher, Ria; Fein, George; Senekal, Marjanne. 2012. "Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders." Nutrients 4, no. 8: 1076-1094.

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