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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 6 (June 2011), Pages 637-711

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2011, 3(6), 683-693; doi:10.3390/nu3060683
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 24 May 2011 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the
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A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed dietary record. Patients with T2DM consumed more daily portions of wholegrains (2.3 vs. 1.1, P = 0.003), more dietary fibre (32.1 vs. 20.9 g, P < 0.001) and had a lower diet GI (53.5 vs. 57.7, P = 0.009) than subjects without T2DM. Both groups had elevated fat and salt intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, relative to current UK recommendations. Conclusions: Patients with T2DM may already consume a lower GI diet than the general population but further efforts are needed to reduce dietary GI and achieve other nutrient targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)

Review

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Open AccessReview Gut Microbiota and Inflammation
Nutrients 2011, 3(6), 637-682; doi:10.3390/nu3060637
Received: 15 April 2011 / Revised: 19 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing
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Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor
Nutrients 2011, 3(6), 694-711; doi:10.3390/nu3060694
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 31 May 2011 / Accepted: 10 June 2011 / Published: 20 June 2011
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and
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Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Salt and Human Health)

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