Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 370-384; doi:10.3390/nu3030370
Review

Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions

1 The Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA 2 The Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2011; in revised form: 21 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)
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Abstract: Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.
Keywords: folic acid; flour fortification; neural tube defects; cancer; epigenetics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Crider, K.S.; Bailey, L.B.; Berry, R.J. Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions. Nutrients 2011, 3, 370-384.

AMA Style

Crider KS, Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions. Nutrients. 2011; 3(3):370-384.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crider, Krista S.; Bailey, Lynn B.; Berry, Robert J. 2011. "Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions." Nutrients 3, no. 3: 370-384.

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