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Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions
The Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
The Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2011; in revised form: 21 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Abstract: Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.
Keywords: folic acid; flour fortification; neural tube defects; cancer; epigenetics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Crider, K.S.; Bailey, L.B.; Berry, R.J. Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions. Nutrients 2011, 3, 370-384.
Crider KS, Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions. Nutrients. 2011; 3(3):370-384.
Crider, Krista S.; Bailey, Lynn B.; Berry, Robert J. 2011. "Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions." Nutrients 3, no. 3: 370-384.