Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Nutrients 2011, 3(12), 1003-1022; doi:10.3390/nu3121003
Review

A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes

Received: 7 September 2011; in revised form: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 25 November 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [237 KB, uploaded 8 December 2011]
Abstract: While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean) are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: < 1 µM, high risk: 1–1.5 µM, moderate risk: 1.5–2.5 µM, low risk: 2.5–4 µM, and very low risk: > 4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index.
Keywords: β-carotene; α-carotene; lycopene; zeaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin; carotenoid; cancer; diabetes; cardiovascular disease β-carotene; α-carotene; lycopene; zeaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin; carotenoid; cancer; diabetes; cardiovascular disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Donaldson, M.S. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes. Nutrients 2011, 3, 1003-1022.

AMA Style

Donaldson MS. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes. Nutrients. 2011; 3(12):1003-1022.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Donaldson, Michael S. 2011. "A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes." Nutrients 3, no. 12: 1003-1022.


Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert