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Nutrients 2011, 3(11), 987-1002; doi:10.3390/nu3110987
Article

Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Is Not Caused by Sulfur Amino Acid Insufficiency

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1 Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Emory Children’s Center, 2015 Uppergate Dr NE, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA 2 Whitehead Biomedical Research Bldg. Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 615 Michael St, Emory University School of Medicine, Ste 205P, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA 3 Department of Medicine, GG23 Emory University Hospital, 1600/002/1AA, 1364 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
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Abstract

Fructose-sweetened liquid consumption is associated with fatty liver and oxidative stress. In rodent models of fructose-mediated fatty liver, protein consumption is decreased. Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. C57BL6 mice were grouped as: control (ad libitum water), fructose (ad libitum 30% fructose-sweetened liquid), glucose (ad libitum 30% glucose-sweetened water) and pair-fed (ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). Hepatic and plasma thiol-disulfide antioxidant status were analyzed after five weeks. Fructose- and glucose-fed mice developed fatty liver. The mitochondrial antioxidant protein, thioredoxin-2, displayed decreased abundance in the liver of fructose and glucose-fed mice compared to controls. Glutathione/glutathione disulfide redox potential (EhGSSG) and abundance of the cytoplasmic antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin-2, were similar among groups. We conclude that both fructose and glucose-sweetened liquid consumption results in fatty liver and upregulated thioredoxin-2 expression, consistent with mitochondrial oxidative stress; however, inadequate sulfur amino acid intake was not the cause of this oxidative stress.
Keywords: cystine; methionine; thioredoxin; redox potential; mitochondria; obesity cystine; methionine; thioredoxin; redox potential; mitochondria; obesity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kunde, S.S.; Roede, J.R.; Vos, M.B.; Orr, M.L.; Go, Y.-M.; Park, Y.; Ziegler, T.R.; Jones, D.P. Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Is Not Caused by Sulfur Amino Acid Insufficiency. Nutrients 2011, 3, 987-1002.

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