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Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol
Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2011; in revised form: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Abstract: Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.
Keywords: vitamin E; tocopherols; breast cancer; estrogen receptor (ER); peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ); nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2); anti-inflammatory; cell proliferation; apoptosis; case-control studies
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MDPI and ACS Style
Smolarek, A.K.; Suh, N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients 2011, 3, 962-986.
Smolarek AK, Suh N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients. 2011; 3(11):962-986.
Smolarek, Amanda K.; Suh, Nanjoo. 2011. "Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol." Nutrients 3, no. 11: 962-986.