Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol
AbstractVitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.
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Smolarek, A.K.; Suh, N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients 2011, 3, 962-986.
Smolarek AK, Suh N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients. 2011; 3(11):962-986.Chicago/Turabian Style
Smolarek, Amanda K.; Suh, Nanjoo. 2011. "Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol." Nutrients 3, no. 11: 962-986.