Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nutrients 2011, 3(11), 962-986; doi:10.3390/nu3110962
Review

Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol

1,2
 and 1,2,3,*
Received: 29 September 2011; in revised form: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Cancer Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [288 KB, uploaded 14 November 2011]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.
Keywords: vitamin E; tocopherols; breast cancer; estrogen receptor (ER); peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ); nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2); anti-inflammatory; cell proliferation; apoptosis; case-control studies vitamin E; tocopherols; breast cancer; estrogen receptor (ER); peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ); nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2); anti-inflammatory; cell proliferation; apoptosis; case-control studies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Smolarek, A.K.; Suh, N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients 2011, 3, 962-986.

AMA Style

Smolarek AK, Suh N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients. 2011; 3(11):962-986.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smolarek, Amanda K.; Suh, Nanjoo. 2011. "Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol." Nutrients 3, no. 11: 962-986.



Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert