Nutrients 2011, 3(11), 962-986; doi:10.3390/nu3110962
Review

Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol

1,2email and 1,2,3,* email
1 Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA 2 Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA 3 The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2011; in revised form: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Cancer Prevention)
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Abstract: Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.
Keywords: vitamin E; tocopherols; breast cancer; estrogen receptor (ER); peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ); nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2); anti-inflammatory; cell proliferation; apoptosis; case-control studies

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MDPI and ACS Style

Smolarek, A.K.; Suh, N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients 2011, 3, 962-986.

AMA Style

Smolarek AK, Suh N. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol. Nutrients. 2011; 3(11):962-986.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smolarek, Amanda K.; Suh, Nanjoo. 2011. "Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol." Nutrients 3, no. 11: 962-986.

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