Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 75-98; doi:10.3390/nu2010075
Review

Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature

1,* email, 1email, 2email and 3email
Received: 16 November 2009; Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day) has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscle by 20–80%.Several studies have reported that β-ALA supplementation can increase high-intensity intermittent exercise performance and/or training adaptations. Although the specific mechanism remains to be determined, the ergogenicity of β-ALA has been most commonly attributed to an increased muscle buffering capacity.More recently, researchers have investigated the effects of co-ingesting β-ALA with creatine monohydrate to determine whether there may be synergistic and/or additive benefits. This paper overviews the theoretical rationale and potential ergogenic value of β-ALA supplementation with or without creatine as well as provides future research recommendations.
Keywords: creatine monohydrate; anaerobic capacity; muscular fatigue; ergogenic aids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Culbertson, J.Y.; Kreider, R.B. .; Greenwood, M.; Cooke, M. Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. Nutrients 2010, 2, 75-98.

AMA Style

Culbertson JY, Kreider RB , Greenwood M, Cooke M. Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. Nutrients. 2010; 2(1):75-98.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Culbertson, Julie Y.; Kreider, Richard B. .; Greenwood, Mike; Cooke, Matthew. 2010. "Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature." Nutrients 2, no. 1: 75-98.

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