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Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature
Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA
Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX 73019, USA
Schools of Medicine & Health Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2009; Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
Abstract: Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day) has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscle by 20–80%.Several studies have reported that β-ALA supplementation can increase high-intensity intermittent exercise performance and/or training adaptations. Although the specific mechanism remains to be determined, the ergogenicity of β-ALA has been most commonly attributed to an increased muscle buffering capacity.More recently, researchers have investigated the effects of co-ingesting β-ALA with creatine monohydrate to determine whether there may be synergistic and/or additive benefits. This paper overviews the theoretical rationale and potential ergogenic value of β-ALA supplementation with or without creatine as well as provides future research recommendations.
Keywords: creatine monohydrate; anaerobic capacity; muscular fatigue; ergogenic aids
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MDPI and ACS Style
Culbertson, J.Y.; Kreider, R.B.
.; Greenwood, M.; Cooke, M. Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. Nutrients 2010, 2, 75-98.
Culbertson JY, Kreider RB
, Greenwood M, Cooke M. Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. Nutrients. 2010; 2(1):75-98.
Culbertson, Julie Y.; Kreider, Richard B.
.; Greenwood, Mike; Cooke, Matthew. 2010. "Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature." Nutrients 2, no. 1: 75-98.