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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070815

Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet May Not Overcome the Deleterious Effects of Low Physical Fitness on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Pooled Analysis

1
School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance, Federal University of the South of Brazil, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
2
Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200450 Porto, Portugal
3
Faculty of Health Sciences, Klaipeda University, LT-91274 Klaipeda, Lithuania
4
Early Start Research Institute, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Education, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
5
School of Nursing, Research Centre in Child Studies, University of Minho, 4710 Braga, Portugal
6
Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago 7500618, Chile
7
Centro de Estudios Para la Medición de la Actividad Física CEMA, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 111221, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract

To examine the combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular fitness (MF), and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on cardiovascular risk in adolescents, a pooled study, including cross-sectional data from two projects [2477 adolescents (1320 girls) aged 12–18 years], was completed. A shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. MF was assessed by the standing-long jump and handgrip tests. Adherence to a MeDiet was assessed by the Kidmed questionnaire. A cardiovascular risk score was computed from the following components: Age and sex, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and glucose. Analysis of covariance showed that participants classified as having optimal (High) adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, as well those classified as low adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, had, on average, the lowest cardiovascular risk score (F = 15.6; p < 0.001). In addition, the high adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group had the highest odds of having a high cardiovascular risk (OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4–15.1; p < 0.001), followed by the low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.2–6.3; p < 0.001), high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/LowCRF group (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.0; p = 0.006), and low adherence to a MeDiet/LowMF/HighCRF group (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5–4.4; p = 0.002) when compared to those with high adherence to a MeDiet/HighMF/HighCRF, after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, our findings showed that, regardless of the MeDiet status, adolescents with low MF and low CRF cumulatively, presented the highest cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, these findings suggest that the combination of these two fitness components may be beneficial to adolescents’ cardiometabolic profile, independent of MeDiet behaviour. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiometabolic health; diet patterns; aerobic fitness; muscular strength; youth cardiometabolic health; diet patterns; aerobic fitness; muscular strength; youth
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Agostinis-Sobrinho, C.; Santos, R.; Rosário, R.; Moreira, C.; Lopes, L.; Mota, J.; Martinkenas, A.; García-Hermoso, A.; Correa-Bautista, J.E.; Ramírez-Vélez, R. Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet May Not Overcome the Deleterious Effects of Low Physical Fitness on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Pooled Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 815.

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