Next Article in Journal
The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet May Not Overcome the Deleterious Effects of Low Physical Fitness on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Pooled Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070816

Contemporary Dietary Intake: Too Much Sodium, Not Enough Potassium, yet Sufficient Iodine: The SALMEX Cohort Results

1
Nephrology and Mineral Metabolism Department, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Nutrition Division, Bureau for Global Health, US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20004-4810, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Nutraceutical Supplements and Hypertension)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [940 KB, uploaded 26 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Initiatives to reduce sodium intake are encouraged globally, yet there is concern about compromised iodine intake supplied through salt. The aim of the present study was to determine baseline sodium, potassium, and iodine intake in a sample of workers from our Institution in Mexico City (SALMEX Cohort). Methods. From a cohort of 1009 workers, appropriate 24-h urine and three-day dietary recall was collected in a sample of 727 adult subjects for assessment of urinary sodium, potassium, and iodine concentrations. Median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was compared across categories of sodium intake of <2, 2–3.6, and ≥3.6 g/day. Results. Average sodium intake was 3.49 ± 1.38 g/day; higher in men than women (4.14 vs. 3.11 g/day, p ≤0.001). Only 10.6% of the population had sodium intake within the recommended range (<2 g/day); 45.4% had high (2–3.6 g/day) and 44% had excessive intake (>3.6 g/day). Average urinary Na/K ratio was 3.15 ± 1.22 (ideal < 1), higher in men (3.42 vs. 3.0, p ≤ 0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that sodium intake was associated with age (p = 0.03), male sex (p < 0.001), caloric intake (p = 0.002), UKE (p < 0.001) and BMI (p < 0.001). Median iodine intake was 286.7 µg/day (IQR 215–370 µg/day). Less than 2% of subjects had iodine intake lower than recommended for adults (95 µg/day); 1.3% of subjects in the recommended range of salt intake had low iodine intake. There is a direct relationship between iodine and sodium urinary excretion (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. In the studied population, there was an excessive sodium intake and an imbalance between sodium and potassium intake. Only 10.6% of the population had sodium intake within the recommended values, but iodine intake in this group appears to be adequate. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt intake; sodium-potassium ratio; iodine intake salt intake; sodium-potassium ratio; iodine intake
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vega-Vega, O.; Fonseca-Correa, J.I.; Mendoza-De la Garza, A.; Rincón-Pedrero, R.; Espinosa-Cuevas, A.; Baeza-Arias, Y.; Dary, O.; Herrero-Bervera, B.; Nieves-Anaya, I.; Correa-Rotter, R. Contemporary Dietary Intake: Too Much Sodium, Not Enough Potassium, yet Sufficient Iodine: The SALMEX Cohort Results. Nutrients 2018, 10, 816.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top