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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060739

Effects of Glutamine on Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Nutrient Drinks in Healthy Young Subjects—Impact on Glycaemia

1
Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
2
Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
3
NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
4
School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
5
Diabetes and Metabolism Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
6
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
7
St Vincent’s Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
8
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract

Glutamine is a potent stimulus for the release of glucagon-like peptide-1, which increases postprandial insulin and slows gastric emptying (GE). We determined the effects of glutamine on GE of, and glycaemic responses to, low- and high-nutrient drinks in eight healthy males (mean age 21.6 ± 0.7 years and BMI 22.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2). Participants were studied on four occasions on which they consumed either a low-nutrient (beef soup; 18 kcal) or high-nutrient (75 g dextrose; 255 kcal) drink, each with or without 30 g of glutamine (120 kcal), in a randomised, crossover design. GE (2D ultrasound), blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured concurrently. Glutamine slowed GE (half emptying time (T50)) of both low- (45 ± 3 min vs. 26 ± 2 min, p < 0.001), and high-nutrient, (100 ± 5 min vs. 77 ± 5 min, p = 0.03) drinks, however, there was no effect on GE of the high nutrient drinks when expressed as kcal/min (3.39 ± 0.21 kcal/min vs. 3.81 ± 0.20 kcal/min, p = 0.25). There was no change in blood glucose after the low-nutrient drinks with or without glutamine, despite a slight increase in plasma insulin with glutamine (p = 0.007). The rise in blood glucose following the high-nutrient drink (p = 0.0001) was attenuated during the first 60 min by glutamine (p = 0.007). We conclude that in healthy subjects, glutamine slows GE of both low- and high-nutrient drinks comparably and attenuates the rise in blood glucose after the high-nutrient glucose drink. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutamine; gastric emptying; glucose; postprandial; insulin; glycaemia glutamine; gastric emptying; glucose; postprandial; insulin; glycaemia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Du, Y.T.; Piscitelli, D.; Ahmad, S.; Trahair, L.G.; Greenfield, J.R.; Samocha-Bonet, D.; Rayner, C.K.; Horowitz, M.; Jones, K.L. Effects of Glutamine on Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Nutrient Drinks in Healthy Young Subjects—Impact on Glycaemia. Nutrients 2018, 10, 739.

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