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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020145

Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

1
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Health Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, School of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2198, South Africa
3
UNICEF Equity House, Brooklyn, Pretoria 0181, South Africa
4
Epidemiology and Global Health Unit, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden
5
INDEPTH Network, East Legon, Accra 23321, Ghana
6
MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2198, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary habits and practices; adolescents; overweight; obesity; South Africa dietary habits and practices; adolescents; overweight; obesity; South Africa
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sedibe, M.H.; Pisa, P.T.; Feeley, A.B.; Pedro, T.M.; Kahn, K.; Norris, S.A. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents. Nutrients 2018, 10, 145.

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