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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Maternal Vitamin D Status and Infant Infection
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 111; doi:10.3390/nu10020111
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may modulate fetal immune system development and infant susceptibility to infections. Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy, particularly among African American (AA) women. Our objective was to compare maternal vitamin D status (plasma 25(OH)D concentration) during
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Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may modulate fetal immune system development and infant susceptibility to infections. Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy, particularly among African American (AA) women. Our objective was to compare maternal vitamin D status (plasma 25(OH)D concentration) during pregnancy and first-year infections in the offspring of African American (AA) and non-AA women. We used medical records to record frequency and type of infections during the first year of life of 220 term infants (69 AA, 151 non-AA) whose mothers participated in the Kansas University DHA Outcomes Study. AA and non-AA groups were compared for maternal 25(OH)D by Mann–Whitney U-test. Compared to non-AA women, AA women were more likely to be vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L; 84 vs. 37%, p < 0.001), and more of their infants had at least one infection in the first 6 months (78.3% and 59.6% of infants, respectively, p = 0.022). We next explored the relationship between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration and infant infections using Spearman correlations. Maternal 25(OH)D concentration was inversely correlated with the number of all infections (p = 0.033), eye, ear, nose, and throat (EENT) infections (p = 0.043), and skin infection (p = 0.021) in the first 6 months. A model that included maternal education, income, and 25(OH)D identified maternal education as the only significant predictor of infection risk in the first 6 months (p = 0.045); however, maternal education, income, and 25(OH)D were all significantly lower in AA women compared to non-AA women . The high degree of correlation between these variables does not allow determination of which factor is driving the risk of infection; however, the one that is most easily remediated is vitamin D status. It would be of value to learn if vitamin D supplementation in this at-risk group could ameliorate at least part of the increased infection risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
Open AccessArticle Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 112; doi:10.3390/nu10020112
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Aim: A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted in order to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies;
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Aim: A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted in order to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies; risk estimates were retrieved from the studies and linear and non-linear dose-response analysis modelled by restricted cubic splines was conducted. A stratified and subgroup analysis by menopausal and estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, smoking status and body mass index (BMI) were performed in order to detect potential confounders. Results: A total of 21 prospective studies were selected either for dose-response, the highest versus lowest category of consumption or subgroup analysis. The dose-response analysis of 13 prospective studies showed no significant association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk in the non-linear model. However, an inverse relationship has been found when the analysis was restricted to post-menopausal women. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day was associated with a 10% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (relative risk, RR 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.82 to 0.99). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results for all potential confounding factors examined. Conclusions: Findings from this meta-analysis may support the hypothesis that coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 113; doi:10.3390/nu10020113
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding
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Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min), gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min) and appetite (visual analogue scales), in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years) ingested drinks (~450 mL) containing: (i) 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’); (ii) 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’); (iii) 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’); or (iv) control (~2 kcal). The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05), which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9), lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) than M280 (p < 0.05). Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05). In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Chinese Healthy Eating Index
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 114; doi:10.3390/nu10020114
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC)-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the
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The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC)-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)-2011, including 3-day–24-h dietary recalls were used in this study. The CHEI was assessed by four exemplary menus developed by the DGC-2016, the general linear models, the independent t-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Spearman’s correlation analysis, the principal components analysis (PCA), the Cronbach’s coefficient, and the Pearson correlation with nutrient intakes. A higher CHEI score was linked with lower exposure to known risk factors of Chinese diets. The CHEI scored nearly perfect for exemplary menus for adult men (99.8), adult women (99.7), and the healthy elderly (99.1), but not for young children (91.2). The CHEI was able to distinguish the difference in diet quality between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.0001), people with higher and lower education levels (P < 0.0001), and people living in urban and rural areas (P < 0.0001). Low correlations with energy intake for the CHEI total and component scores (|r| < 0.34, P < 0.01) supported the index assessed diet quality independently of diet quantity. The PCA indicated that underlying multiple dimensions compose the CHEI, and Cronbach’s coefficient α was 0.22. Components of dairy, fruits and cooking oils had the greatest impact on the total score. People with a higher CHEI score had not only a higher absolute intake of nutrients (P < 0.001), but also a more nutrient-dense diet (P < 0.001). Our findings support the validity and reliability of the CHEI when using the 3-day–24-h recalls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Secular Trends in Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Distribution among Adult Females (1991–2015): Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 115; doi:10.3390/nu10020115
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
With rapid nutrition transition in China, dietary intake and nutritional status of women has gained more and more attention in the past decades. This study aimed to investigate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intakes among Chinese adult females. The longitudinal data
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With rapid nutrition transition in China, dietary intake and nutritional status of women has gained more and more attention in the past decades. This study aimed to investigate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intakes among Chinese adult females. The longitudinal data are from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1991–2015). Information on the intake of energy and macronutrient was obtained from consecutive three-day dietary recall techniques and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mixed-effect models were performed to evaluate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intake. From 1991 to 2015, a significant reduction in daily energy, protein and carbohydrate intakes was seen among all adult females (p < 0.001). Daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, the proportion of females consuming more than 30% of energy from fat and less than 50% of energy from carbohydrate were observed significant increment in the present study (p < 0.001). In 2015, the proportion met the DRI for energy and protein intakes were 47.0% and 48.0%, respectively; the proportion with lower carbohydrate and higher fat intakes compare with the DRI were 45.5% and 66.9%, respectively. Further nutritional education and policy interventions still needed to improve nutrition status for Chinese females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Constitutes Traditional and Modern Eating? The Case of Japan
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 118; doi:10.3390/nu10020118
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1) comprehensively compile and systematize the
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Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1) comprehensively compile and systematize the various facets of traditional and modern eating; and (2) investigate whether these facets also apply to traditional and modern eating in Japan. In Study 1, an extensive international literature review was performed. Forty-five facets of traditional and modern eating were compiled and systematized into the dimensions of what and how people eat, and into eleven separate subdimensions. In Study 2, 340 adults from Japan answered a questionnaire. Results showed that traditional and modern eating in Japan is reflected in both what and how people eat. Within these two dimensions, ten subdimensions were found: the ingredients, processing, temporal origin, spatial origin, and variety of consumed foods, as well as temporal, spatial, and social aspects, appreciation, and concerns when eating. This study provides a broad compilation of facets of traditional and modern eating in Japan. Future research should investigate how these facets are related to life expectancy and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Central Fatigue Markers in Rats Submitted to Resistance Training
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 119; doi:10.3390/nu10020119
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that increased brain serotonin synthesis impairs performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise and specific amino acids may modulate this condition, delaying fatigue. This study investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance
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Recent evidence suggests that increased brain serotonin synthesis impairs performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise and specific amino acids may modulate this condition, delaying fatigue. This study investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance training (RT). Wistar rats were distributed in: sedentary (SED), trained (CON), trained and supplemented with alanine (ALA), glutamine and alanine in their free form (G + A), or as dipeptide (DIP). Trained groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for eight weeks, with progressive loads. In the last 21 days, supplementations were offered in water with a 4% concentration. Albeit without statistically significance difference, RT decreased liver glycogen, and enhanced the concentrations of plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), hypothalamic serotonin, and ammonia in muscle and the liver. Amino acids affected fatigue parameters depending on the supplementation form. G + A prevented the muscle ammonia increase by RT, whereas ALA and DIP augmented ammonia and glycogen concentrations in muscle. DIP also increased liver ammonia. ALA and G + A reduced plasma FFA, whereas DIP increased this parameter, free tryptophan/total tryptophan ratio, hypothalamic serotonin, and the serotonin/dopamine ratio. The supplementations did not affect physical performance. In conclusion, glutamine and alanine may improve or impair central fatigue markers depending on their supplementation form. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Multivitamin, Multimineral and Phytonutrient Supplementation on Nutrient Status and Biomarkers of Heart Health Risk in a Russian Population: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 120; doi:10.3390/nu10020120
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
The primary objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary multivitamin, multimineral and phytonutrient (VMP) supplement on blood nutrient status and biomarkers of heart health risk in a Russian population. One hundred twenty healthy adults (40–70 years) were
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The primary objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary multivitamin, multimineral and phytonutrient (VMP) supplement on blood nutrient status and biomarkers of heart health risk in a Russian population. One hundred twenty healthy adults (40–70 years) were recruited for a 56-day (eight-week) randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study with parallel design. Subjects were divided into two groups and received either a VMP or a placebo (PLA) supplement. Blood nutrient levels of β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, B6, B12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, Zinc and Selenium were measured at baseline and on Days 28 and 56, and quercetin was measured at baseline and on Day 56. Blood biomarkers of heart health, i.e. homocysteine (Hcy), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), uric acid and blood lipid profile, were measured at baseline and Day 56. Dietary VMP supplementation for 56 days significantly increased circulating levels of quercetin, vitamin C, RBC folate and partially prevented the decline in vitamin B6 and B12 status. Both serum Hcy and GGT were significantly reduced (−3.97 ± 10.09 µmol/L; −1.68 ± 14.53 U/L, respectively) after VMP supplementation compared to baseline. Dietary VMP supplementation improved the nutrient status and reduced biomarkers of heart health risk in a Russian population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Food Acquisition through Private and Public Social Networks and Its Relationship with Household Food Security among Various Socioeconomic Statuses in South Korea
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 121; doi:10.3390/nu10020121
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
This study was conducted to understand food acquisition practices from social networks and its relationship with household food security. In-depth interviews and a survey on food security were conducted with twenty-nine mothers and one father in metropolitan areas of South Korea. Many families
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This study was conducted to understand food acquisition practices from social networks and its relationship with household food security. In-depth interviews and a survey on food security were conducted with twenty-nine mothers and one father in metropolitan areas of South Korea. Many families acquired food from their extended families, mainly participants’ mothers. Between low-income and non-low-income households, there was a pattern of more active sharing of food through private networks among non-low-income households. Most of the low-income households received food support from public social networks, such as government and charity institutions. Despite the assistance, most of them perceived food insecurity. We hypothesized that the lack of private social support may exacerbate the food security status of low-income households, despite formal food assistance from government and social welfare institutions. Interviews revealed that certain food items were perceived as lacking, such as animal-based protein sources and fresh produce, which are relatively expensive in this setting. Future programs should consider what would alleviate food insecurity among low-income households and determine the right instruments and mode of resolving the unmet needs. Future research could evaluate the quantitative relationship between private resources and food insecurity in households with various income statuses. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pre-Meal Effect of Whey Proteins on Metabolic Parameters in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 122; doi:10.3390/nu10020122
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG) responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL). The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP) on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP
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Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG) responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL). The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP) on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48) responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial. A pre-meal of WP (20 g) or water (control) was consumed 15 min before a fat-rich meal (supplemented with 20 g WP in case of water pre-meal). Postprandial responses were examined during a 360-min period. A WP pre-meal significantly increased postprandial concentrations of insulin (P < 0.0001), glucagon (P < 0.0001) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (P < 0.0001) in subjects with and without T2D. We detected no effects of the WP pre-meal on TG, ApoB-48, or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses to the fat-rich meal in either group. Paracetamol absorption i.e., gastric emptying was delayed by the WP pre-meal (P = 0.039). In conclusion, the WP pre-meal induced similar hormone and lipid responses in subjects with and without T2D. Thus, the WP pre-meal enhanced insulin, glucagon and GIP responses but did not influence lipid or glucose responses. In addition, we demonstrated that a WP pre-meal reduced gastric emptying in both groups. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Post-Exercise Carbohydrate-Energy Replacement Attenuates Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance the Following Morning in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 123; doi:10.3390/nu10020123
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
The carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise is thought to play a key role in increased post-exercise insulin action. However, the effects of replacing carbohydrate utilized during exercise on postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity are yet to be determined. This study therefore isolated the
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The carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise is thought to play a key role in increased post-exercise insulin action. However, the effects of replacing carbohydrate utilized during exercise on postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity are yet to be determined. This study therefore isolated the extent to which the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise are dependent on the carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise, relative to other exercise-mediated mechanisms. Fourteen healthy adults performed a 90-min run at 70% V ˙ O 2 max starting at 1600–1700 h before ingesting either a non-caloric artificially-sweetened placebo solution (CHO-DEFICIT) or a 15% carbohydrate solution (CHO-REPLACE; 221.4 ± 59.3 g maltodextrin) to precisely replace the measured quantity of carbohydrate oxidized during exercise. The alternate treatment was then applied one week later in a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded crossover design. A standardized low-carbohydrate evening meal was consumed in both trials before overnight recovery ahead of a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the following morning to assess glycemic and insulinemic responses to feeding. Compared to the CHO-DEFICIT condition, CHO-REPLACE increased the incremental area under the plasma glucose curve by a mean difference of 68 mmol·L−1 (95% CI: 4 to 132 mmol·L−1; p = 0.040) and decreased the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index by a mean difference of −2 au (95% CI: −1 to −3 au; p = 0.001). This is the first study to demonstrate that post-exercise feeding to replaceme the carbohydrate expended during exercise can attenuate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity the following morning. The mechanism through which exercise improves insulin sensitivity is therefore (at least in part) dependent on carbohydrate availability and so the day-to-day metabolic health benefits of exercise might be best attained by maintaining a carbohydrate deficit overnight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 124; doi:10.3390/nu10020124
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial
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From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 (13C)-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous) had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta (p < 0.0001). There were only minor changes due to the 13C correction. Pre-test assessment of millet couscous and rice ranked them as more filling and aligned well with postprandial hunger rankings, suggesting that a preconceived idea of rice being highly satiating may have influenced subjective satiety scoring. Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interrupting Prolonged Sitting with Regular Activity Breaks does not Acutely Influence Appetite: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 125; doi:10.3390/nu10020125
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index) 23.9 kg/m2
[...] Read more.
Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index) 23.9 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.9)) completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT), and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB). Standardized meals were provided throughout the intervention, with an ad libitum meal at the end of Day 2. Appetite and satiety were assessed throughout both days of each intervention using five visual analogue scales. The five responses were combined into a single appetite response at each time point. The area under the appetite response curve (AUC) was calculated for each day. Intervention effects for appetite response AUC and ad libitum meal intake were tested using linear mixed models. Appetite AUC did not differ between interventions (standardised effect of RAB compared to SIT: Day 1: 0.11; 95% CI: −0.28, 0.06; p = 0.212; Day 2: 0.04; 95% CI: −0.15, 0.24; p = 0.648). There was no significant difference in energy consumed at the ad libitum lunch meal on Day 2 between RAB and SIT. Interrupting prolonged sitting with regular activity breaks does not acutely influence appetite or volume of food consumed, despite inferred increases in energy expenditure. Longer-term investigation into the effects of regular activity breaks on energy balance is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Almond Consumption and Processing Affects the Composition of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Healthy Adult Men and Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 126; doi:10.3390/nu10020126
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Almond processing has been shown to differentially impact metabolizable energy; however, the effect of food form on the gastrointestinal microbiota is under-investigated. Objective: We aimed to assess the interrelationship of almond consumption and processing on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Design: A controlled-feeding, randomized,
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Background: Almond processing has been shown to differentially impact metabolizable energy; however, the effect of food form on the gastrointestinal microbiota is under-investigated. Objective: We aimed to assess the interrelationship of almond consumption and processing on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Design: A controlled-feeding, randomized, five-period, crossover study with washouts between diet periods was conducted in healthy adults (n = 18). Treatments included: (1) zero servings/day of almonds (control); (2) 1.5 servings (42 g)/day of whole almonds; (3) 1.5 servings/day of whole, roasted almonds; (4) 1.5 servings/day of roasted, chopped almonds; and (5) 1.5 servings/day of almond butter. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each three-week diet period. Results: Almond consumption increased the relative abundances of Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Dialister (p ≤ 0.05). Comparisons between control and the four almond treatments revealed that chopped almonds increased Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Oscillospira compared to control (p < 0.05), while whole almonds increased Dialister compared to control (p = 0.007). There were no differences between almond butter and control. Conclusions: These results reveal that almond consumption induced changes in the microbial community composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. Furthermore, the degree of almond processing (e.g., roasting, chopping, and grinding into butter) differentially impacted the relative abundances of bacterial genera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle The Dynamic Effects of Isosteviol on Insulin Secretion and Its Inability to Counteract the Impaired β-Cell Function during Gluco-, Lipo-, and Aminoacidotoxicity: Studies In Vitro
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 127; doi:10.3390/nu10020127
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Isosteviol (ISV), a diterpene molecule, is an isomer of the backbone structure of a group of substances with proven antidiabetic capabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate if ISV elicits dynamic insulin release from pancreatic islets and concomitantly is able to
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Isosteviol (ISV), a diterpene molecule, is an isomer of the backbone structure of a group of substances with proven antidiabetic capabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate if ISV elicits dynamic insulin release from pancreatic islets and concomitantly is able to ameliorate gluco-, lipo-, and aminoacidotoxicity in clonal β-cell line (INS-1E) in relation to cell viability and insulin secretion. Isolated mice islets placed into perifusion chambers were perifused with 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose with/without 10−7 M ISV. INS-1E cells were incubated for 72 h with either 30 mM glucose, 1 mM palmitate or 10 mM leucine with or without 10−7 M ISV. Cell viability was evaluated with a Cytotoxic Fluoro-test and insulin secretion was measured in Krebs-Ringer Buffer at 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose. In the presence of 3.3 mM glucose, 10−7 M ISV did not change basal insulin secretion from perifused islets. However, at a high glucose level of 16.7 mM, 10−7 M ISV elicited a 2.5-fold increase (−ISV: 109.92 ± 18.64 ng/mL vs. +ISV: 280.15 ± 34.97 ng/mL; p < 0.01). After 72 h gluco-, lipo-, or aminoacidotoxicity in INS-1E cells, ISV treatment did not significantly affect cell viability (glucotoxicity, −ISV: 19.23 ± 0.83%, +ISV: 18.41 ± 0.90%; lipotoxicity, −ISV: 70.46 ± 3.15%, +ISV: 65.38 ± 2.81%; aminoacidotoxicity: −ISV: 8.12 ± 0.63%; +ISV: 7.75 ± 0.38%, all nonsignificant). ISV did not improve impaired insulin secretion (glucotoxicity, −ISV: 52.22 ± 2.90 ng/mL, +ISV: 47.24 ± 3.61 ng/mL; lipotoxicity, −ISV: 19.94 ± 4.10 ng/mL, +ISV: 22.12 ± 3.94 ng/mL; aminoacidotoxicity: −ISV: 32.13 ± 1.00 ng/mL; +ISV: 30.61 ± 1.54 ng/mL, all nonsignificant). In conclusion, ISV acutely stimulates insulin secretion at high but not at low glucose concentrations. However, ISV did not counteract cell viability or cell dysfunction during gluco-, lipo-, or aminoacidotoxicity in INS-1E cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Type-4 Resistant Starch in Substitution for Available Carbohydrate Reduces Postprandial Glycemic Response and Hunger in Acute, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 129; doi:10.3390/nu10020129
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that has been acknowledged for multiple physiological benefits. Resistant starch type 4 (RS4) is a subcategory of RS that has been more intensively studied as new types of RS4 emerge in the food supply.
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Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that has been acknowledged for multiple physiological benefits. Resistant starch type 4 (RS4) is a subcategory of RS that has been more intensively studied as new types of RS4 emerge in the food supply. The primary aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled study was to characterize the postprandial glucose response in healthy adults after consuming a high fiber scone containing a novel RS4 or a low fiber control scone without RS4. Secondary aims included assessment of postprandial insulin response, postprandial satiety, and gastrointestinal tolerance. The fiber scone significantly reduced postprandial glucose and insulin incremental areas under the curves (43–45% reduction, 35–40% reduction, respectively) and postprandial glucose and insulin maximum concentrations (8–10% and 22% reduction, respectively). The fiber scone significantly reduced hunger and desire to eat during the 180 min following consumption and yielded no gastrointestinal side effects compared with the control scone. The results from this study demonstrate that a ready-to-eat baked-good, such as a scone, can be formulated with RS4 replacing refined wheat flour to yield statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in blood glucose and insulin excursions. This is the first study to report increased satiety after short-term RS4 intake, which warrants further investigation in long-term feeding studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Suppression of Fatty Acid and Triglyceride Synthesis by the Flavonoid Orientin through Decrease of C/EBPδ Expression and Inhibition of PI3K/Akt-FOXO1 Signaling in Adipocytes
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 130; doi:10.3390/nu10020130
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Plant flavonoids have a variety of biological properties. In a previous study, we found that the tea of the Asian dayflower, Commelina communis L., decreased the body weight gain in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we studied the anti-adipogenic ability of a
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Plant flavonoids have a variety of biological properties. In a previous study, we found that the tea of the Asian dayflower, Commelina communis L., decreased the body weight gain in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we studied the anti-adipogenic ability of a flavonoid orientin that is found in abundance in C. communis. Orientin repressed the accumulation of intracellular triglyceride (TG) in mouse adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. The treatment with orientin also decreased the mRNA levels of the genes involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, lipolysis, and TG synthesis, and reduced the release of glycerol. Orientin lowered the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) δ in the early stage of adipogenesis, leading to a decrease in the expression of the adipogenic master transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and C/EBPα. Moreover, the anti-adipogenic effect of orientin repressed the phosphorylation of Akt and subsequent phosphorylation of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), which inhibits the transcription of the Ppar gene. These results indicate that a plant flavonoid orientin suppressed the expression of the Pparγ gene through repression of C/ebpδ expression and inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase /Akt-FOXO1 signaling in adipocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Betaine Supplementation Enhances Lipid Metabolism and Improves Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 131; doi:10.3390/nu10020131
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is a major driver of metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, and insulin resistance. However, there are no effective drugs to treat obesity. Betaine is a nontoxic, chemically stable and naturally occurring molecule. This study shows that dietary
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Obesity is a major driver of metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, and insulin resistance. However, there are no effective drugs to treat obesity. Betaine is a nontoxic, chemically stable and naturally occurring molecule. This study shows that dietary betaine supplementation significantly inhibits the white fat production in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. This might be due to betaine preventing the formation of new white fat (WAT), and guiding the original WAT to burn through stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and promoting browning of WAT. Furthermore, dietary betaine supplementation decreases intramyocellular lipid accumulation in HFD-induced obese mice. Further analysis shows that betaine supplementation reduced intramyocellular lipid accumulation might be associated with increasing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), fatty acid oxidation, and the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in muscle. Notably, by performing insulin-tolerance tests (ITTs) and glucose-tolerance tests (GTTs), dietary betaine supplementation could be observed for improvement of obesity and non-obesity induced insulin resistance. Together, these findings could suggest that inhibiting WAT production, intramyocellular lipid accumulation and inflammation, betaine supplementation limits HFD-induced obesity and improves insulin resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of Circulating Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels with Gallstone Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 133; doi:10.3390/nu10020133
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
In addition to well-established risk factors like older age, female gender, and adiposity, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of gallstone disease. Since vitamin E exerts important anti-oxidative functions, we hypothesized that circulating vitamin E levels might be inversely associated
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In addition to well-established risk factors like older age, female gender, and adiposity, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of gallstone disease. Since vitamin E exerts important anti-oxidative functions, we hypothesized that circulating vitamin E levels might be inversely associated with prevalence of gallstone disease. In a cross-sectional study, we measured plasma levels of α- and γ-tocopherol using high performance liquid chromatography in a community-based sample (582 individuals; median age 62 years; 38.5% women). Gallstone disease status was assessed by ultrasound. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of circulating α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio levels with prevalent gallstone disease. Lower probabilities of having gallstone disease were observed in the top (compared to the bottom) tertile of the plasma α-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio in multivariable-adjusted models (OR (Odds Ratio): 0.31; 95% CI (Confidence Interval): 0.13–0.76). A lower probability of having gallstone disease was also observed for the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio, though the association did not reach statistical significance (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.35–1.69 for 3rd vs 1st tertile). In conclusion, our observations are consistent with the concept that higher vitamin E levels might protect from gallstone disease, a premise that needs to be further addressed in longitudinal studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Early-Life Iron Deficiency Reduces Brain Iron Content and Alters Brain Tissue Composition Despite Iron Repletion: A Neuroimaging Assessment
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 135; doi:10.3390/nu10020135
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Early-life iron deficiency has lifelong influences on brain structure and cognitive function, however characterization of these changes often requires invasive techniques. There is a need for non-invasive assessment of early-life iron deficiency with potential to translate findings to the human clinical setting. In
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Early-life iron deficiency has lifelong influences on brain structure and cognitive function, however characterization of these changes often requires invasive techniques. There is a need for non-invasive assessment of early-life iron deficiency with potential to translate findings to the human clinical setting. In this study, 28 male pigs were provided either a control diet (CONT; n = 14; 23.5 mg Fe/L milk replacer) or an iron-deficient diet (ID; n = 14; 1.56 mg Fe/L milk replacer) for phase 1 of the study, from postnatal day (PND) 2 until 32. Twenty pigs (n = 10/diet from phase 1 were used in phase 2 of the study from PND 33 to 61, where all pigs were provided a common iron-sufficient diet, regardless of their phase 1 dietary iron status. All pigs were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at PND 32 and again at PND 61, and quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to assess brain iron content at both imaging time-points. Data collected on PND 61 were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics to determine tissue concentration difference and white matter tract integrity, respectively. Quantitative susceptibility mapping outcomes indicated reduced iron content in the pons, medulla, cerebellum, left cortex, and left hippocampus of ID pigs compared with CONT pigs, regardless of imaging time-point. In contrast, iron contents were increased in the olfactory bulbs of ID pigs compared with CONT pigs. Voxel-based morphometric analysis indicated increased grey and white matter concentrations in CONT pigs compared with ID pigs that were evident at PND 61. Differences in tissue concentrations were predominately located in cortical tissue as well as the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate, internal capsule, and hippocampi. Tract-based spatial statistics indicated increased fractional anisotropy values along subcortical white matter tracts in CONT pigs compared with ID pigs that were evident on PND 61. All described differences were significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results from this study indicate that neuroimaging can sensitively detect structural and physiological changes due to early-life iron deficiency, including grey and white matter volumes, iron contents, as well as reduced subcortical white matter integrity, despite a subsequent period of dietary iron repletion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Diets Rich in Fruits and Vegetables Are Associated with Lower Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 136; doi:10.3390/nu10020136
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are public health concerns in adolescents, yet few studies have examined the association of their diet to CVD risk factors. This study investigated associations between diet, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and
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Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are public health concerns in adolescents, yet few studies have examined the association of their diet to CVD risk factors. This study investigated associations between diet, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipids in 163 16–17 year olds. Diet recall data were converted into Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) to assess diet quality. Differences in diet between groups with normal or obese BMI, normal or hypertensive BP, and normal or altered lipids were determined. Associations between diet and BMI, WC, BP, and lipids, controlling for race, gender, and socioeconomic status, were examined. Mean HEI was 49.2 (±12.0), with no differences observed between groups. HEI was not associated with any CVD risk. Sweetened beverage consumption was higher in obese adolescents, and positively related to total cholesterol (TC). Fruit intake was negatively related to BMI and diastolic BP. Total vegetable intake was negatively related to systolic BP. Greens and beans were negatively related to TC and LDL. Whole grains were negatively related to HDL. This research suggests a cardioprotective effect of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, as well as low in sweetened beverages in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Validation of the English Version of the 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener of the PREDIMED Study, in People at High Cardiovascular Risk in the UK
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 138; doi:10.3390/nu10020138
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the English version of the PREvencion con DIetaMEDiterranea (PREDIMED) 14-item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), a brief questionnaire assessing adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which was used in the PREDIMED trial
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The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the English version of the PREvencion con DIetaMEDiterranea (PREDIMED) 14-item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), a brief questionnaire assessing adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which was used in the PREDIMED trial for assessment and immediate feedback. This instrument (MEDAS) was administered to 96 adults with a high cardiovascular risk (66% women, mean age 68.3 ± 6.0 years), recruited from general practices in Bristol, UK. Participants then completed a 3-day estimated food record, and the MEDAS was administered again one month later. A MedDiet score (range = 0–14) was calculated from the MEDAS’ administrations and food record to assess concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. Predictive validity was assessed by examining the association of the MEDAS-derived score with cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary intakes derived from the food records. The MEDAS-derived MedDiet score was higher by 1.47 points compared to food records (5.47 vs.4.00, p < 0.001), correlated moderately with the record-derived score (r = 0.50, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.53, p < 0.001) and there was borderline fair agreement between the two methods (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.07–0.31, p = 0.002; 95% limits of agreement −2.2, 5.1). Exact agreement within score categories and gross misclassificationwere 45.8% and 21.9%, respectively. The distribution of dietary intakes, reported on the food records by the MEDAS-derived total MedDiet score, was in the expected direction, but no association was observed with cardiometabolic risk factors. The two administrations of the MEDAS produced similar mean total MedDiet scores (5.5 vs. 5.4, p = 0.706), which were correlated (r and ICC = 0.69, p < 0.001) and agreed fairly (κ = 0.38, 95% CI 0.24–0.52, p < 0.001; 95% limits of agreement −3.1, 3.2). The English version of the MEDAS has acceptable accuracy and reliability for assessing MedDiet adherence among individuals with a high cardiovascular risk, in the UK, and can be used to rank individuals according to MedDiet adherence in research and practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Large Variations in Declared Serving Sizes of Packaged Foods in Australia: A Need for Serving Size Standardisation?
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 139; doi:10.3390/nu10020139
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract
Declared serving sizes on food packaging are unregulated in Australia, and variations in serving size within similar products reduces the usability of this information. This study aimed to (i) assess the variations in declared serving sizes of packaged foods from the Five Food
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Declared serving sizes on food packaging are unregulated in Australia, and variations in serving size within similar products reduces the usability of this information. This study aimed to (i) assess the variations in declared serving sizes of packaged foods from the Five Food Groups, and (ii) compare declared serving sizes to the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves and typical portion sizes consumed by Australian adults. Product information, including serving size, was collected for 4046 products from four major Australian retailers. Within product categories from the Five Food Groups, coefficients of variation ranged from 0% to 59% for declared serving size and 9% to 64% for energy per serving. Overall, 24% of all products displayed serving sizes similar (within ±10%) to the standard serves, and 23–28% were similar to typical portion sizes consumed by adults, for females and males, respectively. In conclusion, there is substantial variation in the declared serving sizes of packaged foods from the Five Food Groups, and serving sizes are not aligned with either the Dietary Guidelines or typical portion sizes consumed. Future research into effective means of standardising serving sizes is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Its Relationship with Individual Lifestyle: The Role of Healthy Behaviors, Pro-Environmental Behaviors, Income, and Education
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 141; doi:10.3390/nu10020141
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract
The reduction of diet-related diseases and the improvement of environmental sustainability represent two of the major 21st century food policy challenges. Sustainable diets could significantly contribute to achieving both of these goals, improving consumer health and reducing the environmental impact of food production
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The reduction of diet-related diseases and the improvement of environmental sustainability represent two of the major 21st century food policy challenges. Sustainable diets could significantly contribute to achieving both of these goals, improving consumer health and reducing the environmental impact of food production and consumption. The Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an excellent example of sustainable diet, however recent evidence indicates that such a dietary pattern is now progressively disappearing in Mediterranean countries. In such a context, this paper explores how individual lifestyle and habits are related to a high/low adherence to the MD model. The goal is to examine whether there is a relationship between individuals’ healthy and pro-environmental behaviors and their level of adherence to the MD. The analysis also explores the role of consumer income and education. The study is based on the Italian population (n = 42,000) and uses a structural equation model approach. The results outline that the MD is part of a sustainability-oriented lifestyle and stress the key role of both income and education in affecting adherence to MD. Future policy aimed at contrasting the gradual disappearance of the MD should emphasize the sustainable dimension of the MD, meanwhile reducing socio-economic disparities among different population segments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Yirui Capsules Alleviate Atherosclerosis by Improving the Lipid Profile and Reducing Inflammation in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 142; doi:10.3390/nu10020142
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated Yirui (YR) capsules, whose ingredients are available in health food stores, against AS and the underlying mechanisms. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks developed severe aortic
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Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated Yirui (YR) capsules, whose ingredients are available in health food stores, against AS and the underlying mechanisms. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks developed severe aortic lesions, but YR significantly decreased the plaque area in the total aorta and aortic root. YR affected the serum lipid profile by significantly reducing total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and oxidative modification of LDL-C (Ox-LDL) levels. In addition, multi-cytokine analysis revealed that higher serum levels of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-27 (IL-27), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), which were induced by a high-fat diet, declined with YR treatment. These results suggest that YR reduces the atherosclerotic plaque burden, thereby alleviating AS by modulating the lipid profile and inhibiting inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of Dietary Patterns with Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 143; doi:10.3390/nu10020143
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and
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This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and 2013. A total of 26,016 subjects aged 35 years and above were selected for analysis. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. High intake of a meat–instant food dietary pattern (rich in animal protein, saturated fat, sweets, sodium, and food additives) was positively associated with components of MetS and C-reactive protein (CRP), while high intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fat) or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrate, prebiotics, and probiotics) was inversely associated with components of MetS and CRP. Our findings suggested that intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern decreased the risk of developing MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Transplantation of High Hydrogen-Producing Microbiota Leads to Generation of Large Amounts of Colonic Hydrogen in Recipient Rats Fed High Amylose Maize Starch
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 144; doi:10.3390/nu10020144
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
The hydrogen molecule (H2), which has low redox potential, is produced by colonic fermentation. We examined whether increased H2 concentration in the portal vein in rats fed high amylose maize starch (HAS) helped alleviate oxidative stress, and whether the transplantation
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The hydrogen molecule (H2), which has low redox potential, is produced by colonic fermentation. We examined whether increased H2 concentration in the portal vein in rats fed high amylose maize starch (HAS) helped alleviate oxidative stress, and whether the transplantation of rat colonic microbiota with high H2 production can shift low H2-generating rats (LG) to high H2-generating rats (HG). Rats were fed a 20% HAS diet for 10 days and 13 days in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. After 10 days (experiment 1), rats underwent a hepatic ischemia–reperfusion (IR) operation. Rats were then categorized into quintiles of portal H2 concentration. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatic oxidized glutathione concentration were significantly lower as portal H2 concentration increased. In experiment 2, microbiota derived from HG (the transplantation group) or saline (the control group) were orally inoculated into LG on days 3 and 4. On day 13, portal H2 concentration in the transplantation group was significantly higher compared with the control group, and positively correlated with genera Bifidobacterium, Allobaculum, and Parabacteroides, and negatively correlated with genera Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Escherichia. In conclusion, the transplantation of microbiota derived from HG leads to stable, high H2 production in LG, with the resultant high production of H2 contributing to the alleviation of oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 145; doi:10.3390/nu10020145
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices,
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The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bone Response to Dietary Co-Enrichment with Powdered Whole Grape and Probiotics
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 146; doi:10.3390/nu10020146
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
Nutrition is a primary modifiable determinant of chronic noncommunicable disease, including osteoporosis. An etiology of osteoporosis is the stimulation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary polyphenols and probiotics demonstrate protective effects on bone that are associated with reduced ROS formation
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Nutrition is a primary modifiable determinant of chronic noncommunicable disease, including osteoporosis. An etiology of osteoporosis is the stimulation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary polyphenols and probiotics demonstrate protective effects on bone that are associated with reduced ROS formation and suppressed osteoclast activity. This study tested the effect of dietary enrichment with powdered whole grape and probiotics (composed of equal parts Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. bulgaricus) on bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of age-related osteoporosis. Groups (n = 7 each) of 10-month-old male mice were fed one of six diets for 6 months: 10% grape powder with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder; 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 10% grape powder + 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder + 1% probiotic; 20% sugar control. Femur, tibia and 4th lumbar vertebrae from 10-month-old mice served as comparator baseline samples. Bone microarchitecture was measured by micro-computed tomography and compared across diet groups using analysis of variance. Aging exerted a significant effect on tibia metaphysis trabecular bone, with baseline 10-month-old mice having significantly higher bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number measurements and lower trabecular spacing measurements than all 16-month-old groups (p < 0.001). Neither grape nor probiotic enrichment significantly improved bone microarchitecture during aging compared to control diet. The combination of 20% grape + 1% probiotic exerted detrimental effects on tibia metaphysis BV/TV compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, and trabecular number and trabecular spacing compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, 1% probiotic and control groups (p < 0.05). Femur metaphysis trabecular bone displayed less pronounced aging effects than tibia bone, but also showed detrimental effects of the 20% grape + 1% probiotic vs. most other diets for BV/TV, trabecular number, trabecular spacing and trabecular pattern factor (p < 0.05). Tibia and femur diaphysis cortical bone (cortical wall thickness and medullary area) displayed neither aging nor diet effects (p > 0.05). Vertebrae bone showed age-related deterioration in trabecular thickness and trabecular spacing and a trend toward preservation of trabecular thickness by grape and/or probiotic enrichment (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate no benefit to bone of combined compared to independent supplementation with probiotics or whole grape powder and even suggest an interference of co-ingestion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 149; doi:10.3390/nu10020149
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrate (CHO) before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI) CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim
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Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrate (CHO) before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI) CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g) solution either fructose (F) or glucose (G) before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033) and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004). The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Antioxidant Associations with Metabolic Characteristics in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Adolescents with Severe Obesity: An Observational Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 150; doi:10.3390/nu10020150
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Considering the inadequacy of some antioxidant nutrients in severely obese adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between antioxidant micronutrients status and metabolic syndrome components in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and unhealthy obesity (MUO). We performed an observational study in severely obese
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Considering the inadequacy of some antioxidant nutrients in severely obese adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between antioxidant micronutrients status and metabolic syndrome components in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and unhealthy obesity (MUO). We performed an observational study in severely obese adolescents (body mass index > 99th percentile) and they were classified into MHO or MUO, according to the criteria adapted for adolescents. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical variables were analyzed to characterize the sample of adolescents. The serum antioxidant nutrients assessed were retinol, β-carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, zinc and selenium. A total of 60 adolescents aged 17.31 ± 1.34 years were enrolled. MHO was identified in 23.3% of adolescents. The MHO group showed lower frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (14.3% vs. 78.3%, p < 0.001) when compared to MUO. A correlation was found between retinol and β-carotene concentrations with glycemia (r = −0.372; p = 0.011 and r = −0.314; p = 0.034, respectively) and between Vitamin E with waist circumference (r = −0.306; p = 0.038) in the MUO group. The current study shows that some antioxidant nutrients status, specifically retinol, β-carotene, and Vitamin E, are negatively associated with metabolic alterations in MUO. Further studies are necessary to determine the existing differences in the serum antioxidant profile of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Total and Free Sugar Content of Pre-Packaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Slovenia
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 151; doi:10.3390/nu10020151
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free
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Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015. Together, 52.6% of all analyzed products contained free sugar, which accounted for an average of 57.5% of the total sugar content. Food categories with the highest median free sugar content were: honey and syrups (78.0 g/100 g), jellies (62.9 g/100 g), chocolate and sweets (44.6 g/100 g), jam and spreads (35.9 g/100 g), and cereal bars (23.8 g/100 g). Using year-round sales data provided by the retailers, the data showed that chocolate, sweets, and soft drinks alone accounted for more than 50% of all free sugar sold on the Slovenian market. The results of this study can be used to prepare more targeted interventions and efficient dietary recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Database Analysis of Depression and Anxiety in a Community Sample—Response to a Micronutrient Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 152; doi:10.3390/nu10020152
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Depression and anxiety are common mental health concerns worldwide. Broad-spectrum multi-vitamin/mineral approaches have been found to alleviate a number of psychiatric symptoms. We investigated the effects of a nutrient intervention program, which includes optimizing vitamin D levels, on depression and anxiety outcomes
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Background: Depression and anxiety are common mental health concerns worldwide. Broad-spectrum multi-vitamin/mineral approaches have been found to alleviate a number of psychiatric symptoms. We investigated the effects of a nutrient intervention program, which includes optimizing vitamin D levels, on depression and anxiety outcomes from community-based program. Methods: We evaluated self-reported health measures of depression and anxiety collected as part of a community-based program focused on optimizing overall health through nutritional supplementation, education and lifestyle advice. Results: Data were collected from 16,020 participants, with measures including European Quality of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) and Targeted Symptoms List (TSL) providing self-reported depression and anxiety. More than 56% of participants were identified as having elevated levels of depression and anxiety at baseline as reported on the EQ-5D. After one year in the program, 49.2% (n = 7878) of participants who reported any level of depression or anxiety at baseline reported improvement at follow-up. Of those who reported severe/extreme depression at baseline (n = 829), 97.2% reported improvement after one year. Regression analyses revealed a significant association of improvement in depression and anxiety with higher vitamin D status (>100 nmol/L) and more strenuous physical activity. Conclusion: Overall, people from the general population who suffer from mood and anxiety problems may benefit from improved nutritional status achieved with nutritional supplements. Full article
Open AccessArticle Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 153; doi:10.3390/nu10020153
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of
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Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47). Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 154; doi:10.3390/nu10020154
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three
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The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Process Evaluation and Costing of a Multifaceted Population-Wide Intervention to Reduce Salt Consumption in Fiji
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 155; doi:10.3390/nu10020155
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in
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This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in salt intake from the 11.7 g/day at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. To better understand intervention implementation, we collated data to assess intervention fidelity, reach, context and costs. Government and management changes affected intervention implementation, meaning fidelity was relatively low. There was no active mechanism for ensuring food companies adhered to the voluntary salt reduction targets. Communication activities had wide reach but most activities were one-off, meaning the overall dose was low and impact on behavior limited. Intervention costs were moderate (FJD $277,410 or $0.31 per person) but the strategy relied on multi-sector action which was not fully operationalised. The cyclone also delayed monitoring and likely impacted the results. However, 73% of people surveyed had heard about the campaign and salt reduction policies have been mainstreamed into government programs. Longer-term monitoring of salt intake is planned through future surveys and lessons from this process evaluation will be used to inform future strategies in the Pacific Islands and globally. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The GReat-Child™ Trial: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention on Whole Grains with Healthy Balanced Diet to Manage Childhood Obesity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 156; doi:10.3390/nu10020156
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: The GReat-Child Trial was a quasi-experimental intervention that has emphasized whole grain as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Methods: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG). Eligibility criteria were overweight/obese children
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Background: The GReat-Child Trial was a quasi-experimental intervention that has emphasized whole grain as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Methods: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG). Eligibility criteria were overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming wholegrain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during screening were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the entire intervention program. The IG children underwent six 30-min nutrition education lessons and had school delivery of wholegrain food on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Parents of IG children attended 1-h individual diet counseling. Anthropometric outcomes including BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ), body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured at baseline [T0], post-intervention [T1] (3rd month) and follow-up [T2] (9th month). Results: IG showed significantly lower BAZ (weighted difference: −0.12; 95% CI: −0.21, −0.03; p = 0.009), body fat percentage (weighted difference: −2.6%; 95% CI: −3.7, −1.5; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: −2.4 cm; 95% CI: −3.8, −1.0; p = 0.001) compared to CG. IG reported significantly lower body fat percentage (weighted difference: −3.4%; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.0; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: −2.1 cm; 95% CI: −3.7, −0.5; p = 0.014) at T1 compared to T0. Conclusions: The GReat-Child Trial made a positive impact in managing childhood obesity. It can be incorporated into childhood obesity intervention programs that are being implemented by the policy makers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Liver Fat Scores Moderately Reflect Interventional Changes in Liver Fat Content by a Low-Fat Diet but Not by a Low-Carb Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 157; doi:10.3390/nu10020157
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications.
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Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. Therefore, early detection of NAFLD is an utmost necessity. Potentially helpful tools for the prediction of NAFLD are liver fat indices. The fatty liver index (FLI) and the NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) have been recently introduced for this aim. However, both indices have been shown to correlate with liver fat status, but there is neither sufficient data on the longitudinal representation of liver fat change, nor proof of a diet-independent correlation between actual liver fat change and change of index values. While few data sets on low-fat diets have been published recently, low-carb diets have not been yet assessed in this context. Aim: We aim to provide such data from a highly effective short-term intervention to reduce liver fat, comparing a low-fat and a low-carb diet in subjects with prediabetes. Methods: Anthropometric measurements, magnetic resonance (MR)-based intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, and several serum markers for liver damage have been collected in 140 subjects, completing the diet phase in this trial. Area-under-the-responder-operator-curves (AUROC) calculations as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal Spearman correlations were used. Results: Both FLI and NAFLD-LFS predict liver fat with moderate accuracy at baseline (AUROC 0.775–0.786). These results are supported by correlation analyses. Changes in liver fat, achieved by the dietary intervention, correlate moderately with changes in FLI and NAFLD-LFS in the low-fat diet, but not in the low-carb diet. A correlation analysis between change of actual IHL content and change of single elements of the liver fat indices revealed diet-specific moderate to strong correlations between ΔIHL and changes of measures of obesity, ΔTG, and ΔALT (all low-fat, only) and between ΔIHL and ΔGGT (low-carb, only). With exception for a stronger decrease of triglycerides (TG) levels in the low-carb diet, there is no statistically significant difference in the effect of the diets on anthropometric or serum-based score parameters. Conclusion: While liver fat indices have proved useful in the early detection of NAFLD and may serve as a cost-saving substitute for expensive MR measurements in the cross-sectional evaluation of liver status, their capability to represent interventional changes of liver fat content appears to be diet-specific and lacks accuracy. Liver fat reduction by low-fat diets can be monitored with moderate precision, while low-carb diets require different measuring techniques to demonstrate the same dietary effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns Associated with Lower 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Urban African-American and White Adults Consuming Western Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 158; doi:10.3390/nu10020158
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
The study’s objective was to determine whether variations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) were associated with differences in food consumption and diet quality. Findings from the baseline wave of Healthy Aging in
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The study’s objective was to determine whether variations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) were associated with differences in food consumption and diet quality. Findings from the baseline wave of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study 2004–2009, revealed participants consumed a Western diet. Diet quality measures, specifically the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), based on two 24-h recalls collected during follow-up HANDLS studies from 2009–2013, were used. Reported foods were assigned to 27 groups. In this cross-sectional analysis, the participants (n = 2140) were categorized into tertiles based on their 10-year ASCVD risk. Lower and upper tertiles were used to determine significantly different consumption rates among the food groups. Ten groups were used in hierarchical case clustering to generate four dietary patterns (DPs) based on group energy contribution. The DP with the highest HEI-2010 score included sandwiches along with vegetables and cheese/yogurt. This DP, along with the pizza/sandwiches DP, had significantly higher DASH and MAR scores and a lower 10-year ASCVD risk, compared to the remaining two DPs–meats/sandwiches and sandwiches/bakery products; thus, Western dietary patterns were associated with different levels of ASCVD 10-year risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Sexual Dimorphism in the Selenocysteine Lyase Knockout Mouse
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 159; doi:10.3390/nu10020159
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant properties and health benefits, attributed to its presence in selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly) catalyzes hydrolysis of selenocysteine to selenide and alanine, facilitating re-utilization of Se for de novo
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Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant properties and health benefits, attributed to its presence in selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly) catalyzes hydrolysis of selenocysteine to selenide and alanine, facilitating re-utilization of Se for de novo selenoprotein synthesis. Previously, it was reported that male Scly−/− mice develop increased body weight and body fat composition, and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, compared to wild type mice. Strikingly, females appeared to present with a less severe phenotype, suggesting the relationship between Scly and energy metabolism may be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Here, we report that while body weight and body fat gain occur in both male and female Scly−/− mice, strikingly, males are susceptible to developing glucose intolerance, whereas female Scly−/− mice are protected. Because Se is critical for male reproduction, we hypothesized that castration would attenuate the metabolic dysfunction observed in male Scly−/− mice by eliminating sequestration of Se in testes. We report that fasting serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in castrated males compared to controls, but islet area was unchanged between groups. Finally, both male and female Scly−/− mice exhibit reduced hypothalamic expression of selenoproteins S, M, and glutathione peroxidase 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Selenoproteins in Environment, Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Study for Evaluating the Dose-Dependent Effect of d-Allulose for Fat Mass Reduction in Adult Humans: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 160; doi:10.3390/nu10020160
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
d-allulose is a rare sugar with zero energy that can be consumed by obese/overweight individuals. Many studies have suggested that zero-calorie d-allulose has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolism in mouse models, but only a few studies have been performed on human
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d-allulose is a rare sugar with zero energy that can be consumed by obese/overweight individuals. Many studies have suggested that zero-calorie d-allulose has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolism in mouse models, but only a few studies have been performed on human subjects. Therefore, we performed a preliminary study with 121 Korean subjects (aged 20–40 years, body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2). A randomized controlled trial involving placebo control (sucralose, 0.012 g × 2 times/day), low d-allulose (d-allulose, 4 g × 2 times/day), and high d-allulose (d-allulose, 7 g × 2 times/day) groups was designed. Parameters for body composition, nutrient intake, computed tomography (CT) scan, and plasma lipid profiles were assessed. Body fat percentage and body fat mass were significantly decreased following d-allulose supplementation. The high d-allulose group revealed a significant decrease in not only body mass index (BMI), but also total abdominal and subcutaneous fat areas measured by CT scans compared to the placebo group. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake, plasma lipid profiles, markers of liver and kidney function, and major inflammation markers among groups. These results provide useful information on the dose-dependent effect of d-allulose for overweight/obese adult humans. Based on these results, the efficacy of d-allulose for body fat reduction needs to be validated using dual energy X-ray absorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 161; doi:10.3390/nu10020161
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective
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Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng”) or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 162; doi:10.3390/nu10020162
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
A balanced diet is essential to achieve and maintain good health. In this study, we assessed diet quality of middle aged and elderly people based on Chinese Diet Balance Index-07 (DBI-07) and explored the associations between DBI-07 and anemia. Data analyzed for this
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A balanced diet is essential to achieve and maintain good health. In this study, we assessed diet quality of middle aged and elderly people based on Chinese Diet Balance Index-07 (DBI-07) and explored the associations between DBI-07 and anemia. Data analyzed for this study was from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Yunnan province, southwest China (n = 738, aged 50–77 years). Dietary recalls over there consecutive days were done in a face-to-face interview. The scores of DBI-07 for each component and three DBI-07 indicators ((Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS), Diet Quality Distance (DQD)) were calculated according to compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese residents. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the associations between DBI-07 indicators and anemia, as well as scores of DBI-07 components and Hb level. The sample included 336 men and 402 women. Inadequate intakes of vegetables, fruits, dairy, soybean, eggs, fish and excessive intakes of cereals, meat, cooking oil, salt were both common. 91.3% of the participants had moderate or high levels of inadequate food intake, while 37.7% had moderate or high levels of excessive food intake. The mean Hb was 14.2 ± 1.7 g/dL, with a prevalence of anemia of 13.0%. Subjects with high LBS and DQD were more likely to be anemic (all p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, there were positive correlations between Hb level and the intakes of vegetables and soybean (βvegetables = 1.04, p < 0.01; βsoybean = 0.82, p = 0.04). In conclusion, dietary imbalance and anemia are common in middle aged and elderly population in southwest China and inadequate intakes of vegetables and soybean may increase the risk of anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 163; doi:10.3390/nu10020163
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3) supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3) supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM. Participants with GDM (n = 40), aged 18–40 years, were randomized to take either 1000 mg fish oil capsules, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (n = 20), or placebo (n = 20) twice a day for 6 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipids, and inflammation was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of GDM women using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results of RT-PCR indicated that omega-3 supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P = 0.04) in PBMCs of patients with GDM, compared with the placebo. In addition, gene expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (P < 0.001), interleukin-1 (IL-1) (P = 0.007), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P = 0.01) was downregulated in PBMCs of women with GDM, following omega-3 supplementation. No significant effect of omega-3 supplementation was indicated on gene expression of IL-8 in PBMCs of patients with GDM. Overall, fish oil supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1, and TNF-α, but not gene expression of IL-8. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Breast Milk Lipidome Is Associated with Early Growth Trajectory in Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 164; doi:10.3390/nu10020164
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infants. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth-pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective-monocentric-observational birth-cohort was established, enrolling 138 preterm infants, who
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Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infants. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth-pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective-monocentric-observational birth-cohort was established, enrolling 138 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. All infants were ranked according to the change in weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge. Then, we selected infants who experienced “slower” (n = 15, −1.54 ± 0.42 Z-score) or “faster” (n = 11, −0.48 ± 0.19 Z-score) growth; as expected, although groups did not differ regarding gestational age, birth weight Z-score was lower in the “faster-growth” group (0.56 ± 0.72 vs. −1.59 ± 0.96). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry lipidomic signatures combined with multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed using multidimensional statistical, false-discovery-rate and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) tools. Breast-milk associated with faster growth contained more medium-chain saturated fatty acid and sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. The ability of such biomarkers to predict early-growth was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors but remains to be ascertained in larger cohort studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Guarana (Paullinia cupana) Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 165; doi:10.3390/nu10020165
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on mitochondrial biogenesis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6J mice were divided in two groups: high-fat diet HFD and high-fat diet + guarana (HFD-GUA). Both groups received HFD and water
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on mitochondrial biogenesis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6J mice were divided in two groups: high-fat diet HFD and high-fat diet + guarana (HFD-GUA). Both groups received HFD and water ad libitum and the HFD-GUA group also received a daily gavage of guarana (1 g/kg weight). Body weight and food intake was measured weekly. Glycemic, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were determined. VO2 and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by indirect calorimetry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and protein content by western blotting. The HFD-GUA group presented lower body weight, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, visceral, and epididyimal adipose tissue depots, and glycemic and triglyceride levels, with no change in food intake and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in VO2 and basal energy expenditure (EE), as well as Pgc1α, Creb1, Ampka1, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Sirt1 expression in the muscle and brown adipose tissue. In addition, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in mtDNA (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid) content in the muscle when compared to the HFD group. Thus, our data showed that guarana leads to an increase in energetic metabolism and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, contributing to control of weight gain, even when associated with high-fat diet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Iron and Vitamin D Status in Female Elite Athletes
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 167; doi:10.3390/nu10020167
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin D may influence iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, whereas iron is essential for vitamin D synthesis. We examined whether vitamin D deficiencies (VDD) are associated with reduced iron status and whether progressive iron deficiency (ID) is accompanied by inferior vitamin D status. The
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Vitamin D may influence iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, whereas iron is essential for vitamin D synthesis. We examined whether vitamin D deficiencies (VDD) are associated with reduced iron status and whether progressive iron deficiency (ID) is accompanied by inferior vitamin D status. The study included 219 healthy female (14–34 years old) athletes. VDD was defined as a 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. ID was classified based on ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and blood morphology indices. The percentage of ID subjects was higher (32%) in the VDD group than in the 25(OH)D sufficient group (11%) (χ2 = 10.6; p = 0.001). The percentage of VDD subjects was higher (75%) in the ID than in the normal iron status group (48%) (χ2 = 15.6; p = 0.001). The odds ratios (ORs) for VDD increased from 1.75 (95% CI 1.02–2.99; p = 0.040) to 4.6 (95% CI 1.81–11.65; p = 0.001) with progressing iron deficiency. ID was dependent on VDD in both VDD groups (25(OH)D < 75 and < 50 nmol/L). The ID group had a lower 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.000). The VDD group had lower ferritin (p = 0.043) and iron (p = 0.004) concentrations and higher values of TIBC (p = 0.016) and sTfR (p = 0.001). The current results confirm the association between vitamin D and iron status in female athletes, although it is difficult to assess exactly which of these nutrients exerts a stronger influence over the other. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo with Focus in Nutrition: Rationale, Design, and Procedures
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 169; doi:10.3390/nu10020169
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes the design, sampling methods, and data collection procedures, with particular focus on dietary data, used for the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo, 2015 ISA-Capital) with Focus in Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition).
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This paper describes the design, sampling methods, and data collection procedures, with particular focus on dietary data, used for the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo, 2015 ISA-Capital) with Focus in Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition). The ISA is a household cross-sectional, population-based survey that uses complex, stratified, multistage sampling to create a representative sample of residents from urban São Paulo, Brazil. The 2015 ISA-Nutrition comprised a sub-sample of the 2015 ISA-Capital and intended to include 300 adolescents (aged 12 to 19 years), 300 adults (aged 20 to 59 years), and 300 older adults (aged ≥60 years). From February 2015 to February 2016, 1737 individuals answered the first 24-h dietary recall (24HR), and 901 individuals consented to have their blood sample collected, to undergo anthropometric and blood pressure assessment, and to answer the second 24HR. The 2015 ISA-Nutrition aims to evaluate lifestyle-related modifiable factors in São Paulo’s residents, as well as their association with biochemical and genetic markers, and environmental aspects related to cardiometabolic risk factors. This paper concludes that 2015 ISA-Nutrition may provide valuable insights into the cardiometabolic risk factors in a big city in an upper middle-income country and contribute to the formulation of health and nutritional policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Standardized Parenteral Nutrition for the Transition Phase in Preterm Infants: A Bag That Fits
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 170; doi:10.3390/nu10020170
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
The optimal composition of standardized parenteral nutrition (SPN) is not yet known, contributing to nutrient deficit accrual and growth failure, with the period of parenteral nutrition weaning, i.e., transition (TN) phase, being identified as particularly vulnerable. We created a comprehensive nutrition database, representative
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The optimal composition of standardized parenteral nutrition (SPN) is not yet known, contributing to nutrient deficit accrual and growth failure, with the period of parenteral nutrition weaning, i.e., transition (TN) phase, being identified as particularly vulnerable. We created a comprehensive nutrition database, representative of the nutritional course of a diverse range of preterm infants (n = 59, birth weight ≤ 1500 g, gestation < 34 weeks) by collecting hourly macronutrient intake data as part of a prospective, observational study over 19 months. Using a nutrient modeling technique for the TN phase, various amino acid (AA) concentrations of SPN were tested within the database, whilst acknowledging the nutritional contribution from enteral feeds until target AA intakes were consistently achieved. From the modeling, the AA composition of SPN was determined at 3.5 g/100 mL, which was the maximum to avoid exceeding target intakes at any point in the TN phase. However, in order to consistently achieve target AA intakes, additional nutritional strategies were required, which included increasing the exclusion of enteral feeds in fluid and nutrient calculations from <20 mL/kg/day to <40 mL/kg/day, and earlier fortification of breastmilk at 80 mL/kg/day. This data-driven nutrient modeling process supported the development of an improved SPN regimen for our preterm population in the TN phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 171; doi:10.3390/nu10020171
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were
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Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day). The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 172; doi:10.3390/nu10020172
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract
The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L
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The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Dietary VDR Ligands Regulate Genes Encoding Biomarkers of Skin Repair That Are Associated with Risk for Psoriasis
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 174; doi:10.3390/nu10020174
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 4 February 2018
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Abstract
Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) improves psoriasis symptoms, possibly by inducing the expression of late cornified envelope (LCE)3 genes involved in skin repair. In psoriasis patients, the majority of whom harbor genomic deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3C_LCE3B-del),
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Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) improves psoriasis symptoms, possibly by inducing the expression of late cornified envelope (LCE)3 genes involved in skin repair. In psoriasis patients, the majority of whom harbor genomic deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3C_LCE3B-del), we propose that certain dietary analogues of 1,25D activate the expression of residual LCE3A/LCE3D/LCE3E genes to compensate for the loss of LCE3B/LCE3C in the deletant genotype. Herein, human keratinocytes (HEKn) homozygous for LCE3C_LCE3B-del were treated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and curcumin, two low-affinity, nutrient ligands for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). DHA and curcumin induce the expression of LCE3A/LCE3D/LCE3E mRNAs at concentrations corresponding to their affinity for VDR. Moreover, immunohistochemical quantitation revealed that the treatment of keratinocytes with DHA or curcumin stimulates LCE3 protein expression, while simultaneously opposing the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-signaled phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases, p38 and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), thereby overcoming inflammation biomarkers elicited by TNFα challenge. Finally, DHA and curcumin modulate two transcription factors relevant to psoriatic inflammation, the activator protein-1 factor Jun B and the nuclear receptor NR4A2/NURR1, that is implicated as a mediator of VDR ligand-triggered gene control. These findings provide insights into the mechanism(s) whereby dietary VDR ligands alter inflammatory and barrier functions relevant to skin repair, and may provide a molecular basis for improved treatments for mild/moderate psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Iron Supplementation Alters Hepatic Inflammation in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 175; doi:10.3390/nu10020175
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 4 February 2018
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common liver disease in the world. NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired hepatic iron overload is seen in a number of patients with NAFLD; however, its significance
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common liver disease in the world. NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired hepatic iron overload is seen in a number of patients with NAFLD; however, its significance in the pathology of NAFLD is still debated. Here, we investigated the role of dietary iron supplementation in experimental steatohepatitis in rats. Rats were fed a control, high-fat (HF), high-fat high-iron (HFHI) and high-iron (HI) diet for 30 weeks. Blood biochemical, histopathological and gut microbiota analyses were performed. Rats in HF and HFHI groups showed an ALT-dominant elevation of serum transaminases, hepatic steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The number of large inflammatory foci, corresponding to lobular inflammation in NASH patients, was significantly higher in HFHI than in HF group; within the lesion, macrophages with intense iron staining were observed. Hepatic expression of TNFα was higher in HFHI than that in HF group. There was no significant change in hepatic oxidative stress, gut microbiota or serum endotoxin levels between HF and HFHI groups. These results suggested that dietary iron supplementation enhances experimental steatohepatitis induced by long-term high-fat diet feeding in rats. Iron-laden macrophages can play an important role in the enhancement of hepatic inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns in UK Adults Are Associated with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, and Diet Quality
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 177; doi:10.3390/nu10020177
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine empirical dietary patterns in UK adults and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, self-reported nutrient intake, nutrient biomarkers, and the Nutrient-based Diet Quality Score (NDQS) using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data 2008–2012 (
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The aim of this study was to examine empirical dietary patterns in UK adults and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, self-reported nutrient intake, nutrient biomarkers, and the Nutrient-based Diet Quality Score (NDQS) using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data 2008–2012 (n = 2083; mean age 49 years; 43.3% male). Four patterns explained 13.6% of the total variance: ‘Snacks, fast food, fizzy drinks’ (SFFFD), ‘Fruit, vegetables, oily fish’ (FVOF), ‘Meat, potatoes, beer’ (MPB), and ‘Sugary foods, dairy’ (SFD). ‘SFFFD’ was associated positively with: being male; smoking; body mass index (BMI); urinary sodium; intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), fat and starch; and negatively with: age; plasma carotenoids; and NDQS. ‘FVOF’ was associated positively with: being non-white; age; income; socioeconomic classification (National Statistics Socio-economic Classifications; NSSEC); plasma carotenoids; intake of non-starch polysaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was negatively associated with: being male, smoking, BMI, urinary sodium, intake of saturated fat; and NMES and NDQS. Whilst the patterns explained only 13.6% of the total variance, they were associated with self-reported nutrient intake, biomarkers of nutrient intake, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and the NDQS. These findings provide support for dietary patterns analyses as a means of exploring dietary intake in the UK population to inform public health nutrition policy and guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 178; doi:10.3390/nu10020178
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract
Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED). This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne
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Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED). This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status) were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages) and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages) were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Assessment of Resistant Starch Degradation by the Caecal Microbiota of Mice Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing—A Proof-of-Principle Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 179; doi:10.3390/nu10020179
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract
Resistant starch (RS) is the digestion resistant fraction of complex polysaccharide starch. By reaching the large bowel, RS can function as a prebiotic carbohydrate, i.e., it can shape the structure and activity of bowel bacterial communities towards a profile that confers health benefits.
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Resistant starch (RS) is the digestion resistant fraction of complex polysaccharide starch. By reaching the large bowel, RS can function as a prebiotic carbohydrate, i.e., it can shape the structure and activity of bowel bacterial communities towards a profile that confers health benefits. However, knowledge about the fate of RS in complex intestinal communities and the microbial members involved in its degradation is limited. In this study, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) was used to identify mouse bowel bacteria involved in the assimilation of RS or its derivatives directly in their natural gut habitat. Stable-isotope [U13C]-labeled native potato starch was administrated to mice, and caecal contents were collected before 0 h and 2 h and 4 h after administration. ‘Heavy’, isotope-labeled [13C]RNA species, presumably derived from bacteria that have metabolized the labeled starch, were separated from ‘light’, unlabeled [12C]RNA species by fractionation of isolated total RNA in isopycnic-density gradients. Inspection of different density gradients showed a continuous increase in ‘heavy’ 16S rRNA in caecal samples over the course of the experiment. Sequencing analyses of unlabeled and labeled 16S amplicons particularly suggested a group of unclassified Clostridiales, Dorea, and a few other taxa (Bacteroides, Turicibacter) to be most actively involved in starch assimilation in vivo. In addition, metabolic product analyses revealed that the predominant 13C-labeled short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in caecal contents produced from the [U13C] starch was butyrate. For the first time, this study provides insights into the metabolic transformation of RS by intestinal bacterial communities directly within a gut ecosystem, which will finally help to better understand its prebiotic potential and possible applications in human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin B12 Status of Various Ethnic Groups Living in New Zealand: An Analysis of the Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 181; doi:10.3390/nu10020181
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to serious health problems, whilst sub-optimal status is associated with raised biochemical markers of disease risk. Identifying at-risk groups could benefit both individuals and public health. Dietary data were sourced from the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009, involving
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Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to serious health problems, whilst sub-optimal status is associated with raised biochemical markers of disease risk. Identifying at-risk groups could benefit both individuals and public health. Dietary data were sourced from the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009, involving a nationally representative sample of 4721 participants. Ethnic groupings were by regional origin: Māori and Pacific Islands, New Zealand European, East and South-East Asian, and South Asian. Diets were assessed using 24-h recalls and from responses to a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from a subset (n = 3348). The mean (95% CI) vitamin B12 intake of the Māori and Pacific Islands group was 5.1 (4.7, 5.5) µg/day, New Zealand Europeans 4.1 (3.8, 4.3) µg/day, East and South-East Asians 4.5 (3.7, 5.3) µg/day, and South Asians 3.0 (2.5, 3.6) µg/day. Overall, 20.1% of the sample had vitamin B12 inadequacy (<221 pmol/L). South Asians had the lowest vitamin B12 concentration at 282 (251, 312) pmol/L, whilst Māori/Pacific and East/South-East Asians had the highest, at 426 (386, 466) and 425 (412, 437) pmol/L, respectively. The main dietary determinant of serum vitamin B12 concentration was whether or not people ate red meat, with a regression coefficient of 27.0 (95% CI: 6.6, 47.5). It would be helpful for health agencies to be aware of the potential for compromised vitamin B12 status in South Asian communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lower Dietary Inflammatory Index Scores Are Associated with Lower Glycemic Index Scores among College Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 182; doi:10.3390/nu10020182
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), the glycemic index (GI), and the glycemic load (GL) is not known, although it is known that carbohydrates are pro-inflammatory. We aimed to measure the association between the DII and both GI and
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The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), the glycemic index (GI), and the glycemic load (GL) is not known, although it is known that carbohydrates are pro-inflammatory. We aimed to measure the association between the DII and both GI and GL among college students. In this cross-sectional study, 110 college students completed a 3-day food diary, which was used to calculate the DII, the GI, the GL, and the healthy eating index (HEI)-2010. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals of the GI, the GL, and the HEI-2010 were presented per DII tertile using generalized linear mixed models. Participants in tertile 1 of DII scores had lower GI and GL scores, but higher HEI-2010 scores than those in tertile 3. Pearson correlations showed that DII score was positively correlated with the GI score (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), but negatively correlated with the HEI-2010 (r = −0.56, p < 0.001). DII score was not correlated with GL score. Results from this study suggest that increased inflammatory potential of diet, as represented by higher DII scores, was associated with increased GI scores and lower quality of diet on the HEI-2010. Use of the DII suggests new directions for dietary approaches for preventing chronic diseases that moves beyond convention by decreasing systemic inflammation. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 183; doi:10.3390/nu10020183
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical
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Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers—bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)—were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP (p = 0.002) and CTX-I (p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC (p = 0.067) and BMD (p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D-Binding Protein Polymorphisms, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Sunshine and Multiple Sclerosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 184; doi:10.3390/nu10020184
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Blacks have different dominant polymorphisms in the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene that result in higher bioavailable vitamin D than whites. This study tested whether the lack of association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in blacks and Hispanics is
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Blacks have different dominant polymorphisms in the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene that result in higher bioavailable vitamin D than whites. This study tested whether the lack of association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in blacks and Hispanics is due to differences in these common polymorphisms (rs7041, rs4588). We recruited incident MS cases and controls (blacks 116 cases/131 controls; Hispanics 183/197; whites 247/267) from Kaiser Permanente Southern California. AA is the dominant rs7041 genotype in blacks (70.0%) whereas C is the dominant allele in whites (79.0% AC/CC) and Hispanics (77.1%). Higher 25OHD levels were associated with a lower risk of MS in whites who carried at least one copy of the C allele but not AA carriers. No association was found in Hispanics or blacks regardless of genotype. Higher ultraviolet radiation exposure was associated with a lower risk of MS in blacks (OR = 0.06), Hispanics and whites who carried at least one copy of the C allele but not in others. Racial/ethnic variations in bioavailable vitamin D do not explain the lack of association between 25OHD and MS in blacks and Hispanics. These findings further challenge the biological plausibility of vitamin D deficiency as causal for MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Modulation of miRNAs by Vitamin C in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 186; doi:10.3390/nu10020186
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (18–25 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that have been identified as potential regulators of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation, differentiation, and musculoskeletal development. Vitamin C is known to play a vital role in such types of biological processes through various
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (18–25 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that have been identified as potential regulators of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation, differentiation, and musculoskeletal development. Vitamin C is known to play a vital role in such types of biological processes through various different mechanisms by altering mRNA expression. We hypothesized that vitamin C mediates these biological processes partially through miRNA regulation. We performed global miRNA expression analysis on human BMSCs following vitamin C treatment using microarrays containing human precursor and mature miRNA probes. Bioinformatics analyses were performed on differentially expressed miRNAs to identify novel target genes and signaling pathways. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that the miRNAs may regulate multiple stem cell-specific signaling pathways such as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), fatty acid biosynthesis and hormone signaling pathways. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel stem cell proliferation and differentiation gene targets. The findings of the present study demonstrate that vitamin C can have positive effects on BMSCs in part by regulating miRNA expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle Aged Oolong Tea Reduces High-Fat Diet-Induced Fat Accumulation and Dyslipidemia by Regulating the AMPK/ACC Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 187; doi:10.3390/nu10020187
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
While oolong tea (OT) has been shown to induce weight loss and reduce fat accumulation, the mechanisms remain poorly defined, especially for aged OT. In this study, five groups of mice (n = 9/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle
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While oolong tea (OT) has been shown to induce weight loss and reduce fat accumulation, the mechanisms remain poorly defined, especially for aged OT. In this study, five groups of mice (n = 9/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-fat diet (HFD) with vehicle or the water extracts from aged OTs (EAOTs, three different storage years) by oral gavage at 1000 mg/kg·BW for 6 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The morphology of hepatocytes and adipocytes was analyzed by being stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The levels of p-AMPK, p-ACC (and non-phosphorylated versions), CPT-1 and FAS were determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. EAOTs decreased HFD-induced body weight, fat accumulation, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while enhancing the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. At the same time, EAOTs clearly alleviated fatty liver and reduced the size of adipocytes in the epididymal fat, especially in the 2006 group. Most importantly, EAOTs increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, and up-regulated the expression of CPT-1 but down-regulated the expression of fatty acid synthase, TNF-α and iNOS. Thus, EAOTs may inhibit obesity by up-regulating energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation while inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Macronutrient Composition and Food Form Affect Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 188; doi:10.3390/nu10020188
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
Glycaemic index (GI) is used as an indicator to guide consumers in making healthier food choices. We compared the GI, insulin index (II), and the area under the curve for blood glucose and insulin as glucose (GR) and insulin responses (IR) of a
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Glycaemic index (GI) is used as an indicator to guide consumers in making healthier food choices. We compared the GI, insulin index (II), and the area under the curve for blood glucose and insulin as glucose (GR) and insulin responses (IR) of a newly developed liquid nutritional formula with one commercially available liquid product with different types of carbohydrates. We then evaluated the glucose and insulin responses of two test foods with comparable energy density and protein percentage but presented in different food forms (liquid vs. solid). Fourteen healthy women participated in the study. GI, II, GR, and IR were assessed after (independent) consumption of two liquid products and a solid breakfast meal. The two liquid foods showed comparable GI, whilst the liquid form appeared to produce lower median GI (25 vs. 54), and II (52 vs. 98) values compared to the solid breakfast (p < 0.02). The median GR and IR for solid breakfast were respectively 44% and 45% higher compared to the liquid product (p < 0.02). Liquid formulas with different carbohydrate qualities produced comparable glucose responses, while foods with comparable energy density and protein percentage but different food form elicited differential effects on GI, II, GR, and IR. Nutrient quality and food form need to be taken into consideration when developing low GI products to manage glycaemic responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 189; doi:10.3390/nu10020189
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38)
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The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38) or to make no diet changes (n = 37) for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting. A marked increase in meal-stimulated insulin secretion was observed in the intervention group compared with controls (interaction between group and time, Gxt, p < 0.001). HOMA-IR index fell significantly (p < 0.001) in the intervention group (treatment effect −1.0 (95% CI, −1.2 to −0.8); Gxt, p = 0.004). Changes in HOMA-IR correlated positively with changes in body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat volume (r = 0.34; p = 0.009 and r = 0.42; p = 0.001, respectively). The latter remained significant after adjustment for changes in BMI (r = 0.41; p = 0.002). Changes in glucose-induced insulin secretion correlated negatively with BMI changes (r = −0.25; p = 0.04), but not with changes in visceral fat. Beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved through a low-fat plant-based diet in overweight adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle German Consumers’ Attitude towards Selenium-Biofortified Apples and Acceptance of Related Nutrition and Health Claims
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 190; doi:10.3390/nu10020190
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
The present study investigates consumers’ acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as Se health and nutrition claims that have been approved by the European Commission. Despite indications that such statements are more likely to be accepted if the carrier product itself has a
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The present study investigates consumers’ acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as Se health and nutrition claims that have been approved by the European Commission. Despite indications that such statements are more likely to be accepted if the carrier product itself has a healthy image, unprocessed fruits biofortified with Se have not been investigated in this context yet. Apples as the most frequently-consumed type of fresh fruit in Germany may offer the potential to improve the Se status of consumers when the produce is enriched with Se. Therefore, an online survey of 356 German adults was conducted to analyze different aspects that could affect the perception of and preference for the proposed product concept by consumers. The findings indicate a moderate acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as of Se health and nutrition claims among the participants. Additional information about beneficial health effects of Se had a significant impact on consumer acceptance. People who regularly eat convenience food and prefer to buy apples at supermarkets were particularly attracted by the product idea. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate good prospects for a successful introduction of Se-rich apples in the German food market, if the produce is advertised with approved health and nutrition claims. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Selenoproteins in Environment, Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Markers of Iron Status Are Associated with Risk of Hyperuricemia among Chinese Adults: Nationwide Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 191; doi:10.3390/nu10020191
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Background: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) involved in iron metabolism, has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for gout and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between markers of iron status with risk of hyperuricemia (HU)
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Background: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) involved in iron metabolism, has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for gout and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between markers of iron status with risk of hyperuricemia (HU) in Chinese adult population. Methods: Data were extracted from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 7946 apparently healthy adults. Serum ferritin (SF), transferrin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), hemoglobin (Hb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and SUA were measured. Diet was assessed with three consecutive 24 h recalls. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activities were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate the associations of SF, transferrin, sTfR, and Hb with SUA and the risk of HU. Results: The crude prevalence of HU was 16.1%. SF, transferrin, and Hb levels were positively associated with SUA and the risk of HU after adjustment for cluster effects and potential confounders (all p-trend < 0.05). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of SF, those in the highest quartile had significantly higher SUA concentrations (β = 0.899 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.788, 1.010; p < 0.001) and higher risk of HU (odds ratio (OR) = 3.086, 95% CI: 2.450, 3.888; p < 0.001). Participants with the highest quartile of transferrin had significantly higher SUA concentrations (β = 0.488 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.389, 0.587; p < 0.001) and higher risk of HU (OR: 1.900; 95% CI: 1.579, 2.286; p < 0.001) when compared with those with the lowest quartile. In male participants, those in the highest quartile of Hb had significantly higher risk of HU when compared to the reference group (OR: 1.401, 95% CI: 1.104, 1.777; p < 0.01); however, this association was not found in female participants (OR: 1.093; 95% CI: 0.821, 1.455; p = 0.544). Conclusion: SF, transferrin, and Hb levels were positively associated with the risk of HU, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings, as well as to elucidate their underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle The Macular Carotenoids are Associated with Cognitive Function in Preadolescent Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 193; doi:10.3390/nu10020193
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
The macular carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are obtained via diet and accumulate in the central retina where they are referred to as macular pigment. The density of this biomarker (macular pigment optical density; MPOD) has been positively correlated with cognitive functioning
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The macular carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are obtained via diet and accumulate in the central retina where they are referred to as macular pigment. The density of this biomarker (macular pigment optical density; MPOD) has been positively correlated with cognitive functioning via measures of global cognition, processing speed, and visual-spatial abilities, among others. Although improvements in cognitive function have been found in adults, much less is known about how L and Z intake may support or improve cognitive functioning during periods of rapid developmental change, such as childhood and pre-adolescence. This study examined the relationship between MPOD and cognitive functioning in 51 7–13-year-old children (51% female). MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) optimized for this age group. Cognitive function was assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III (composite standard scores were obtained for Brief Intellectual Ability, Verbal Ability, Cognitive Efficiency, Processing Speed, and Executive Processes). In this sample, MPOD was significantly related to Executive Processes, r(47) = 0.288, p < 0.05, and Brief Intellectual Ability, r(47) = 0.268, p < 0.05. The relationship to Cognitive Efficiency was positive and trending but not significant, r(49) = 0.206, p = 0.074. In general, these data are consistent with those of adults showing a link between higher carotenoid status and improved cognitive functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness and Safety of a Probiotic-Mixture for the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial with Fecal Real-Time PCR and NMR-Based Metabolomics Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 195; doi:10.3390/nu10020195
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: To investigate the effectiveness and the safety of a probiotic-mixture (Vivomixx®, Visbiome®, DeSimone Formulation®; Danisco-DuPont, Madison, WI, USA) for the treatment of infantile colic in breastfed infants, compared with a placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
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Introduction: To investigate the effectiveness and the safety of a probiotic-mixture (Vivomixx®, Visbiome®, DeSimone Formulation®; Danisco-DuPont, Madison, WI, USA) for the treatment of infantile colic in breastfed infants, compared with a placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, randomly assigned to receive a probiotic-mixture or a placebo for 21 days. A structured diary of gastrointestinal events of the infants was given to the parents to complete. Samples of feces were also collected to evaluate microbial content and metabolome using fecal real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based analysis. Study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01869426). Results: Fifty-three exclusively-breastfed infants completed three weeks of treatment with a probiotic-mixture (n = 27) or a placebo (n = 26). Infants receiving the probiotic-mixture had less minutes of crying per day throughout the study by the end of treatment period (68.4 min/day vs. 98.7 min/day; p = 0.001). A higher rate of infants from the probiotic-mixture group responded to treatment (defined by reduction of crying times of ≥50% from baseline), on day 14, 12 vs. 5 (p = 0.04) and on day 21, 26 vs. 17 (p = 0.001). A higher quality of life, assessed by a 10-cm visual analogue scale, was reported by parents of the probiotic-mixture group on day 14, 7.1 ± 1.2 vs. 7.7 ± 0.9 (p = 0.02); and on day 21, 6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.9 ± 1.0 (p = 0.001). No differences between groups were found regarding anthropometric data, bowel movements, stool consistency or microbiota composition. Probiotics were found to affect the fecal molecular profile. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Administration of a probiotic-mixture appears safe and reduces inconsolable crying in exclusively breastfed infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pediatric Gastroenterology: Selected Papers from SIGENP)
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Open AccessArticle Cholecalciferol Additively Reduces Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Severe Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Treated with Calcitriol and Cinacalcet among Hemodialysis Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 196; doi:10.3390/nu10020196
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
We evaluated the improvement of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone parameters by supplementing nutritional vitamin D (cholecalciferol) to combined calcimimetic (cinacalcet) and active vitamin D analog (calcitriol) among severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) hemodialysis (HD) patients. A randomized, controlled open-label study was
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We evaluated the improvement of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone parameters by supplementing nutritional vitamin D (cholecalciferol) to combined calcimimetic (cinacalcet) and active vitamin D analog (calcitriol) among severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) hemodialysis (HD) patients. A randomized, controlled open-label study was undertaken in 60 HD patients with serum iPTH > 1000 pg/mL or persistently high iPTH ≥ 600 pg/mL even after >3 months of calcitriol (3 μg/week). The study group received oral cholecalciferol (5000 IU/ day) and the control group received a placebo. All patients received fixed dose cinacalcet (30 mg/day, orally) and calcitriol. Calcitriol was reduced if iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL and cinacalcet was withdrawn if serum iPTH was persistently low (iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL) for 4 weeks after the reduction of calcitriol. A significantly lower iPTH level was noted from the 20th week in the study group compared to the placebo group, and the target iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL was achieved at the 24th week in the study group. Most patients achieved serum 25-(OH)D3 ≥ 30 ng/mL in the study group. Nearly 40% of study patients gained >10% improvement in femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD). We conclude that cholecalciferol additively reduced serum iPTH levels, improved 25-(OH)D3 levels and improved FN BMD when used together with cinacalcet/calcitriol in severe SHPT HD patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Compliance with Dietary Guidelines Varies by Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 197; doi:10.3390/nu10020197
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent
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Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent compliance with dietary guidelines varies by weight status. The sample of 185,951 Australian adults were majority female (71.8%), with 30.2%, 35.3% and 31.0% aged between 18–30, 31–50 and 51–70 years respectively. Using multinomial regression, in the adjusted model controlling for gender and age, individuals in the lowest quintile of diet quality were almost three times more likely to be obese than those in the highest quintile (OR 2.99, CI: 2.88:3.11; p < 0.001). The differential components of diet quality between normal and obese adults were fruit (difference in compliance score 12.9 points out of a possible 100, CI: 12.3:13.5; p < 0.001), discretionary foods (8.7 points, CI: 8.1:9.2; p < 0.001), and healthy fats (7.7 points, CI: 7.2:8.1; p < 0.001). Discretionary foods was the lowest scoring component across all gender and weight status groups, and are an important intervention target to improve diet quality. This study contributes to the evidence that diet quality is associated with health outcomes, including weight status, and will be useful in framing recommendations for obesity prevention and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Snacking Patterns in Children: A Comparison between Australia, China, Mexico, and the US
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 198; doi:10.3390/nu10020198
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Snacking is common in children and influenced by many factors. The aim of this study is to provide insight of both common and country-specific characteristics of snacking among 4–13 year old children. We analyzed snacking prevalence, energy and nutrient contributions from snacking across
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Snacking is common in children and influenced by many factors. The aim of this study is to provide insight of both common and country-specific characteristics of snacking among 4–13 year old children. We analyzed snacking prevalence, energy and nutrient contributions from snacking across diverse cultures and regions, represented by Australia, China, Mexico, and the US using data from respective national surveys. We found that the highest prevalence of snacking was in Australia and the US (over 95%) where snacking provided one-third and one-quarter of total energy intake (TEI), respectively, followed by Mexico (76%, provided 15% TEI) and China (65%, provided 10% TEI). Compared to 4–8 year-olds, the consumption of fruits and milk was lower in 9–13 year-old children, with a trend of increasing savory snacks consumption in China, Mexico, and the US. The nutrient density index of added sugars and saturated fat was higher, especially in Australia, Mexico, and the US. Results suggested that snacking could be an occasion to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in all countries, especially for older children. Snacking guidelines should focus on reducing consumption of snacks high in saturated fat and added sugars for Australia, Mexico, and the US, whereas improving dairy consumption is important in China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 201; doi:10.3390/nu10020201
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 10 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) administration on the
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Celiac disease (CD) is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) administration on the characteristics and metabolism of intestinal microbiota in CD children following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Thirty-four paediatric CD patients (mean age 10 years; 62% females) on a GFD were randomized into two experimental groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or placebo (maltodextrin; 7 g/day) for 3 months. The quantitative gut microbiota characteristics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were analysed. In addition, side effects were monitored. Generally, the administration of Synergy 1 in a GFD did not cause any side effects. After the intervention period, Bifidobacterium count increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the Synergy 1 group. Moreover, an increase in faecal acetate and butyrate levels was observed in the prebiotic group. Consequently, total SCFA levels were 31% higher than at the baseline. The presented trial shows that Synergy 1 applied as a supplement of a GFD had a moderate effect on the qualitative characteristics of faecal microbiota, whereas it stimulated the bacterial metabolite production in CD children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Effect of Aster glehni on Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 202; doi:10.3390/nu10020202
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
Although Aster glehni is a common dietary herb that has various bioactivities, including anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects, A. glehni has not been studied in colon cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized the chemopreventive effects of an ethanol extract of A. glehni (AG) on azoxymethane/dextran
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Although Aster glehni is a common dietary herb that has various bioactivities, including anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects, A. glehni has not been studied in colon cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized the chemopreventive effects of an ethanol extract of A. glehni (AG) on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. In this study, we found that treatment with AG significantly attenuated the AOM/DSS-induced enlargement of the spleen and shortening of the colon. In addition, colonic tumor formation, colonic damage, and increased muscle thickness were significantly reduced in AOM/DSS-induced mice fed AG. Treatment with AG also reduced intestinal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression in mice with AOM/DSS-induced CAC. Furthermore, AG reduced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation via phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of kappa Bα (IκBα), leading to inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. It also downregulated the expression of NF-κB-related proteins, including the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family and inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), in mice with AOM/DSS-induced CAC. Taken together, these findings suggest that the treatment with AG inhibited colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice, and this chemopreventive effect was strongly mediated by suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway, indicating that AG could be a promising protective agent against CAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Lycopene Concentrations and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Maternal-Infant Dyads
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 204; doi:10.3390/nu10020204
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and many carotenoids, including lycopene, potentially have antioxidant properties. The objective of this analysis was to explore the associations between serum lycopene concentrations, including lycopene isomers, and maternal-newborn outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples
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Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and many carotenoids, including lycopene, potentially have antioxidant properties. The objective of this analysis was to explore the associations between serum lycopene concentrations, including lycopene isomers, and maternal-newborn outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 180 mother-infant pairs. Serum of total lycopene as well as the cis- and trans-isomers concentrations were measured using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Descriptive statistics were calculated; Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord concentrations. The relationship between lycopene concentration and outcomes were evaluated with linear and logistic regression models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Maternal and cord serum lycopene concentrations were positively correlated for total lycopene (r = 0.30, p < 0.0001), cis-lycopene (r = 0.29, p = 0.0002); and trans-lycopene (r = 0.32, p < 0.0001). Maternal concentrations of cis-lycopene were significantly lower in mothers whose infants developed respiratory distress syndrome compared to those who did not (0.336 ± 0.171 vs. 0.445 ± 0.238 µmol/L, p = 0.04) and also in mothers whose babies were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit compared to those who were not (0.380 ± 0.202 vs. 0.458 ± 0.244 µmol/L, p = 0.04). Conversely, cord concentrations of trans-lycopene were significantly higher in infants who developed RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome) (0.023 ± 0.012 vs. 0.016 ± 0.012, p = 0.007 for RDS vs. no RDS), and a similar pattern was seen NICU admission (0.023 ± 0.016 vs. 0.015 ± 0.009 µmol/L for NICU (Newborn Intensive Care Unit) admission vs. no NICU admission, p = 0.007). Maternal concentrations of total and cis-lycopene were positively associated with infant birth weight, length and head circumference after adjustment for relevant confounders. As serum carotenoids, including lycopene, are modifiable by diet, future research determining the clinical impact of these compounds is warranted. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 205; doi:10.3390/nu10020205
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., “starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20”) in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess,
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In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., “starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20”) in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools (“observed series”), several scenarios (1600 series per scenario) of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal). In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4–14) were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i) MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii) MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii) removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Ketogenic Formula Prevents Tumor Progression and Cancer Cachexia by Attenuating Systemic Inflammation in Colon 26 Tumor-Bearing Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 206; doi:10.3390/nu10020206
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (ketogenic diets) might prevent tumor progression and could be used as supportive therapy; however, few studies have addressed the effect of such diets on colorectal cancer. An infant formula with a ketogenic composition (ketogenic formula; KF) is used to treat
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Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (ketogenic diets) might prevent tumor progression and could be used as supportive therapy; however, few studies have addressed the effect of such diets on colorectal cancer. An infant formula with a ketogenic composition (ketogenic formula; KF) is used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy. We investigated the effect of KF on cancer and cancer cachexia in colon tumor-bearing mice. Mice were randomized into normal (NR), tumor-bearing (TB), and ketogenic formula (KF) groups. Colon 26 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into TB and KF mice. The NR and TB groups received a standard diet, and the KF mice received KF ad libitum. KF mice preserved their body, muscle, and carcass weights. Tumor weight and plasma IL-6 levels were significantly lower in KF mice than in TB mice. In the KF group, energy intake was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Blood ketone body concentrations in KF mice were significantly elevated, and there was a significant negative correlation between blood ketone body concentration and tumor weight. Therefore, KF may suppress the progression of cancer and the accompanying systemic inflammation without adverse effects on weight gain, or muscle mass, which might help to prevent cancer cachexia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Assisted Heating on Carbohydrate Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Postprandial Glycemic Response in Oat Meals
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 207; doi:10.3390/nu10020207
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Minimally processed cereal breakfast products from whole grain entered the market due to consumer demand of more nutritional food with more controlled sugar release. However, the subsequent processing of such products with different cooking methods in the consumer’s kitchen may lead to significant
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Minimally processed cereal breakfast products from whole grain entered the market due to consumer demand of more nutritional food with more controlled sugar release. However, the subsequent processing of such products with different cooking methods in the consumer’s kitchen may lead to significant differentiation of their nutritional value. Therefore, the evaluation of the impact of frequently used cooking methods on a final quality of breakfast cereals meal is needed. The present study investigates how the two different methods of heating, conventional and microwave (MW) assisted, affect the carbohydrate content, profile and resulting glycemic index of so prepared food as well as the antioxidant activity of meals. Two products available on the market—oat bran and flakes—were used. The highest starch content in fluid phase of oatmeal was detected in samples heated for 3 min with microwaves, regardless the type. The lowest starch content was obtained for 5 min MW heated flakes sample. The total content of glucose was about 1.5 times lower in bran vs. flakes oatmeal. The highest β-glucan content in fluid fraction was also observed for bran meal but its release was independent of applied conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Calcium Chloride and Calcium Gluconate in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions without Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Light Obscuration Methodology
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 208; doi:10.3390/nu10020208 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium
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There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium chloride and calcium gluconate without cysteine. Solutions of TrophAmine and Premasol (2.5% amino acids), containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate were compounded without cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using light obscuration. Maximum concentrations tested were 15 mmol/L of calcium and 12.5 mmol/L of phosphate. If the average particle count of three replicates exceeded USP guidelines, the solution was determined to be incompatible. This study found that 12.5 and 10 mmol/L of calcium and phosphate, respectively, are compatible in neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions compounded with 2.5% amino acids of either TrophAmine or Premasol. There did not appear to be significant differences in compatibility for solutions containing TrophAmine or Premasol when solutions were compounded with either CaCl2 or CaGlu-Pl. This study presents data in order to evaluate options for adding calcium and phosphate to neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions during shortages of calcium and cysteine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Changes in the Anti-Allergic Activities of Sesame by Bioconversion
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 210; doi:10.3390/nu10020210
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Sesame is an important oilseed crop, which has been used as a traditional health food to ameliorate the prevention of various diseases. We evaluated the changes in the anti-allergic activities of sesame by bioconversion. SDS-PAGE of non-fermented sesame proteins showed major allergen bands,
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Sesame is an important oilseed crop, which has been used as a traditional health food to ameliorate the prevention of various diseases. We evaluated the changes in the anti-allergic activities of sesame by bioconversion. SDS-PAGE of non-fermented sesame proteins showed major allergen bands, while that of fermented sesame showed only a few protein bands. Additionally, we investigated the effectiveness of fermented sesame by bioconversion in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced HaCaT cells. In HaCaT cells, fermented sesame inhibited the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), thymus and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Moreover, fermented sesame inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Fermented sesame exerts anti-allergic effects by suppressing the expression of chemokines and cytokines via blockade of NF-κB and STAT1 activation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Claimed Effects, Outcome Variables and Methods of Measurement for Health Claims on Foods Related to Vision Proposed Under Regulation (EC) 1924/2006
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 211; doi:10.3390/nu10020211
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Adequate visual function has a strong impact on the quality of life of people. Several foods and food components have been hypothesized to play a role in the maintenance of normal visual function and in the prevention of eye diseases. Some of these
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Adequate visual function has a strong impact on the quality of life of people. Several foods and food components have been hypothesized to play a role in the maintenance of normal visual function and in the prevention of eye diseases. Some of these foods/food components have been the object of a request of authorization for use of health claims under Articles 13(5) or 14 of the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Most of these requests have received a negative opinion from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) due to the choice of inappropriate outcome variables (OVs) and/or methods of measurement (MMs) applied in the studies used to substantiate the claims. This manuscript refers to the collection, collation and critical analysis of OVs and MMs related to vision. Guidance document and requests for authorization of health claims were used to collect OVs and MMs related to vision. A literature review was performed to critically analyse OVs and MMs, with the aim of defining their appropriateness in the context of a specific claimed effect related to vision. The results highlight the importance of adequate choices of OVs and MMs for an effective substantiation of claims related to visual function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
Open AccessArticle Imbalanced Nutrient Intake in Cancer Survivors from the Examination from the Nationwide Health Examination Center-Based Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 212; doi:10.3390/nu10020212
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
This study was conducted to examine the nutrient intake status of cancer survivors. A total of 5224 cancer survivors, 19,926 non-cancer individuals without comorbidities (non-cancer I), and 20,622 non-cancer individuals with comorbidities, matched by age, gender, and recruitment center location were included in
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This study was conducted to examine the nutrient intake status of cancer survivors. A total of 5224 cancer survivors, 19,926 non-cancer individuals without comorbidities (non-cancer I), and 20,622 non-cancer individuals with comorbidities, matched by age, gender, and recruitment center location were included in the analysis. Generally, the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher and the proportion from fat was lower in cancer survivors. The odds ratios (ORs) for total energy (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86–0.99), proportion of total energy from fat (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35–0.83), and protein (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79–0.90) were significantly lower, and the OR for the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10–1.33) in the cancer survivors than in non-cancer I. Additionally, the cancer survivors’ protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and phosphorus intakes were lower, whereas their vitamin C intake was higher. When divided by cancer type, the ORs for the carbohydrate percentages were significantly higher in the colon and breast cancer survivors, whereas protein intake was lower in gastric, breast, and cervical cancer survivors. The nutrient intake patterns in Asian cancer survivors are poor, with higher carbohydrate and lower fat and protein intakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 213; doi:10.3390/nu10020213
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA),
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We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle A Survey of Home Enteral Nutrition Practices and Reimbursement in the Asia Pacific Region
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 214; doi:10.3390/nu10020214
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Literature regarding the use of home enteral nutrition (HEN) and how it is reimbursed in the Asia Pacific region is limited. This research survey aims to determine the availability of HEN, the type of feeds and enteral access used, national reimbursement policies, the
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Literature regarding the use of home enteral nutrition (HEN) and how it is reimbursed in the Asia Pacific region is limited. This research survey aims to determine the availability of HEN, the type of feeds and enteral access used, national reimbursement policies, the presence of nutrition support teams (NSTs), and clinical nutrition education in this region. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 20 clinical nutrition societies and leaders in the Asia Pacific region in August 2017, where thirteen countries responded. Comparison of HEN reimbursement and practice between countries of different income groups based on the World Bank’s data was investigated. Financial support for HEN is only available in 40% of the countries. An association was found between availability of financial support for HEN and health expenditure (r = 0.63, p = 0.021). High and middle-upper income countries use mainly commercial supplements for HEN, while lower-middle income countries use mainly blenderized diet. The presence of NSTs is limited, and only present mainly in acute settings. Sixty percent of the countries indicated an urgent need for funding and reimbursement of HEN. This survey demonstrates the varied clinical and economic situation in the Asia Pacific region. There is a lack of reimbursement, clinical support, and inadequate educational opportunities, especially for the lower-middle income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Extensive Degradation and Low Bioavailability of Orally Consumed Corn miRNAs in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 215; doi:10.3390/nu10020215
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
The current study seeks to resolve the discrepancy in the literature regarding the cross-kingdom transfer of plant microRNAs (miRNAs) into mammals using an improved miRNA processing and detection method. Two studies utilizing C57BL/6 mice were performed. In the first study, mice were fed
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The current study seeks to resolve the discrepancy in the literature regarding the cross-kingdom transfer of plant microRNAs (miRNAs) into mammals using an improved miRNA processing and detection method. Two studies utilizing C57BL/6 mice were performed. In the first study, mice were fed an AIN-93M diet and gavaged with water, random deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP) or isolated corn miRNAs for two weeks (n = 10 per group). In the second study, mice were fed an AIN-93M diet, or the diet supplemented with 3% fresh or autoclaved corn powder for two weeks (n = 10 per group). Corn miRNA levels were analyzed in blood and tissue samples by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) following periodate oxidation and β elimination treatments to eliminate artifacts. After removing false positive detections, there were no differences in corn miRNA levels between control and treated groups in cecal, fecal, liver and blood samples. Using an in vitro digestion system, corn miRNAs in AIN-93M diet or in the extracts were found to be extensively degraded. Less than 1% was recovered in the gastrointestinal tract after oral and gastric phases. In conclusion, no evidence of increased levels of corn miRNAs in whole blood or tissues after supplementation of corn miRNAs in the diet was observed in a mouse model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Healthiness of Food and Beverages for Sale at Two Public Hospitals in New South Wales, Australia
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 216; doi:10.3390/nu10020216
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Our aim was to conduct objective, baseline food environment audits of two major western Sydney public hospitals and compare them to recently revised state nutritional guidelines. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted (June–July2017) across 14 fixed food outlets and 70
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(1) Background: Our aim was to conduct objective, baseline food environment audits of two major western Sydney public hospitals and compare them to recently revised state nutritional guidelines. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted (June–July2017) across 14 fixed food outlets and 70 vending machines in two hospitals using an audit tool designed to assess the guideline’s key food environment parameters of availability, placement, and promotion of ‘Everyday’ (healthy) and ‘Occasional’ (less healthy) products. (3) Results: Availability: Overall, Everyday products made up 51% and 44% of all products available at the two hospitals. Only 1/14 (7%) fixed outlets and 16/70 (23%) vending machines met the guideline’s availability benchmarks of ≥75% Everyday food and beverages. Proportion of Everyday products differed among different types of food outlets (café, cafeteria, convenience stores). Placement: On average, food outlets did not meet recommendations of limiting Occasional products in prominent positions, with checkout areas and countertops displaying over 60% Occasional items. Promotion: Over two-thirds of meal deals at both hospitals included Occasional products. (4) Conclusion: Baseline audit results show that substantial improvements in availability, placement, and promotion can be made at these public hospitals to meet the nutrition guidelines. Audits of other NSW hospitals using the developed tool are needed to investigate similarities and differences in food environment between sites. These findings highlight the need for ongoing tracking to inform whether the revised guidelines are leading to improved food environments in health facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population—A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 217; doi:10.3390/nu10020217
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities,
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This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks (p < 0.05) at all ages. A significantly higher proportion of people under 50 years self-reported that they were “able to cook” in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Out-of-Home Food Consumers in Brazil: What do They Eat?
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 218; doi:10.3390/nu10020218
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Considering the increased contribution of foods consumed outside home and their potential impact on diet, this study aims to identify eating out patterns and their association with nutritional dietary quality in Brazil. We used the Individual Food Intake Survey 2008–2009, conducted with 34,003
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Considering the increased contribution of foods consumed outside home and their potential impact on diet, this study aims to identify eating out patterns and their association with nutritional dietary quality in Brazil. We used the Individual Food Intake Survey 2008–2009, conducted with 34,003 individuals aged 10 and up. We used factor analysis by principal component to identify out-of-home eating patterns and linear regression to explore the association between patterns scores and dietary quality. We identified three food patterns. The “Traditional meal” pattern carried more rice, beans, meat, roots and tubers, pasta, vegetables and eggs. The “typical Brazilian breakfast/tea” pattern carried more fresh bread, margarine, milk, cheese and butter. The “Ultra-processed food” pattern carried more ready-to-eat meals and soft drinks. The “traditional meal” pattern was positively associated with calories from proteins, fiber, iron, potassium and sodium densities, whereas “typical Brazilian breakfast/tea” and “ultra-processed food” patterns were positively associated with energy density, the percentage of calories from lipids or carbohydrates, trans fat and free sugar. Out-of-home eating may have a negative impact on nutritional dietary quality when based on ultra-processed food. However, it is possible to maintain a healthy out-of-home diet with adherence to traditional Brazilian cuisine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Status and Placental Transport in Adolescent Pregnancies
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 220; doi:10.3390/nu10020220
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Adolescent pregnancy increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental delivery of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for fetal growth and development. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess maternal and fetal status of fatty acids (FA) measured at birth and
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Adolescent pregnancy increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental delivery of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for fetal growth and development. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess maternal and fetal status of fatty acids (FA) measured at birth and the expression of key genes involved in FA uptake, transport and metabolism in the placenta of fifteen adolescents and fifteen adults. FA were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Placental expression of FA transporters was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was quantified by Western Blot. Adolescents had lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and total n-3 FA levels in maternal erythrocytes and placenta, but these were not different in fetal erythrocytes. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) concentration was increased in placenta but lower in fetal circulation. Plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) and fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 mRNA expressions were not different, however FATP1, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) mRNA and PPARγ protein levels were decreased in placenta of adolescents. Despite significant downregulation of FATP1, CD36 and FABP3, there was only a modest decrease in LCPUFA (10%) and AA (12%) and no difference in DHA content in cord blood, suggesting that FA transfer to the fetus was partially protected by other factors in adolescents from this cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Insufficient Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Low- and Middle-Income Setting: A Population-Based Survey in Semi-Urban Tanzania
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 222; doi:10.3390/nu10020222
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
A daily intake of 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) is recommended for protection against non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Inadequate FV intake is a global problem but resource-poor countries like Tanzania are most deprived and constitute settings where little is known for informing
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A daily intake of 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) is recommended for protection against non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Inadequate FV intake is a global problem but resource-poor countries like Tanzania are most deprived and constitute settings where little is known for informing public health interventions. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of inadequate FV intake, frequency of FV intake, portions of FV intake and their associations with socio-demographic/lifestyle factors in South-Eastern Tanzania. Data on FV dietary indicators, socio-demographic factors, smoking, alcohol and healthcare use were collected from 7953 participants (≥15 years) of the population-based MZIMA open community cohort (2012–2013). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between FV intake outcomes and their socio-demographic/lifestyle determinants. Most (82%) of the participants did not meet the recommended daily FV intake While only a fraction consumed fruits daily (15.5%), almost half consumed vegetables daily (44.2%). However, the median (IQR) number of vegetable portions consumed was lower (2(1)/person/day) than that for fruits (2(2)/person/day) People with higher education were more likely to consume fruits daily. Independent correlates of inadequate FV intake included young age, being male, low education, low-income occupations, low alcohol, high tobacco and low healthcare use. Public health interventions should target the socio-economically deprived and culturally-rooted preferences while prioritizing promotion of vegetable for most immediate gain in overall FV intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 223; doi:10.3390/nu10020223
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 4 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and
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Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n = 455), toddlers (n = 265), pregnant women (n = 161), and lactating women (n = 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%–26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Selenium Addition to Animal Feeds on Human Selenium Status in Serbia
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 225; doi:10.3390/nu10020225
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status
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Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status and dietary habits of the Serbian population related to food of animal origin. Plasma selenium concentration in healthy adult volunteers, including residents of one of the regions with the lowest (Eastern Serbia, n = 60) and of one of the regions with the highest Se serum levels reported in the past (Belgrade, n = 82), was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the correlation between Se plasma levels and dietary intake data derived from food frequency questionnaires and laboratory tests. The mean plasma Se level of the participants was 84.3 ± 15.9 μg/L (range: 47.3–132.1 μg/L), while 46% of participants had plasma Se levels lower than 80 μg/L. Frequency of meat, egg, and fish consumption was significantly correlated with plasma selenium level (r = 0.437, p = 0.000). Selenium addition to animal feed in the quantity of 0.14 mg/kg contributed to the improvement of human plasma selenium levels by approximately 30 μg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Selenoproteins in Environment, Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 226; doi:10.3390/nu10020226
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and
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Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: ‘Processed meat’, ‘Poultry’, ‘Pork’, ‘Traditional’, ‘Milk’, ‘Take-away’, ‘Beef’ and ‘Fish’. ‘Fish eaters’ and ‘Milk drinkers’ had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of ‘Pork’ and ‘Take-away eaters’ was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: ‘Meat eaters’ had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Milk: An Effective Recovery Drink for Female Athletes
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 228; doi:10.3390/nu10020228
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Milk has become a popular post-exercise recovery drink. Yet the evidence for its use in this regard comes from a limited number of investigations utilising very specific exercise protocols, and mostly with male participants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate
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Milk has become a popular post-exercise recovery drink. Yet the evidence for its use in this regard comes from a limited number of investigations utilising very specific exercise protocols, and mostly with male participants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a sprinting and jumping protocol in female team-sport athletes. Eighteen females participated in an independent-groups design. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK) or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development (RFD), countermovement jump (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), sprint performance), muscle soreness and tiredness, symptoms of stress, serum creatine kinase (CK) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined pre- and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise. MILK had a very likely beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180/s) from baseline to 72 h (0.0 ± 10.0% vs. −8.7 ± 3.7%, MILK v CHO), and countermovement jump (−1.1 ± 5.2% vs. −10.4 ± 6.7%) and symptoms of stress (−13.5 ± 7.4% vs. −18.7 ± 11.0%) from baseline to 24 h. MILK had a likely beneficial effect and a possibly beneficial effect on other peak torque measures and 5 m sprint performance at other timepoints but had an unclear effect on 10 and 20 m sprint performance, RSI, muscle soreness and tiredness, CK and hsCRP. In conclusion, consumption of 500 mL milk attenuated losses in muscle function following repeated sprinting and jumping and thus may be a valuable recovery intervention for female team-sport athletes following this type of exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 229; doi:10.3390/nu10020229
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic
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Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077−0.201) and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175−0.300) to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080−0.386) and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70). Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Strategies in Cognitive Decline: Focus on Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 230; doi:10.3390/nu10020230
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life
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Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47), adolescents (n = 46), adults (n = 71), the elderly (n = 23), pregnant women (n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25), and vegans (n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Western and Mediterranean Diets and Vitamin D on Muscle Fibers of Sedentary Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 231; doi:10.3390/nu10020231
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with sarcopenia. Decreased serum levels of Vitamin D (VitD) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and their mutual relationship were also reported. We aimed to evaluate whether different dietary profiles, containing or not VitD, may exert different effects
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Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with sarcopenia. Decreased serum levels of Vitamin D (VitD) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and their mutual relationship were also reported. We aimed to evaluate whether different dietary profiles, containing or not VitD, may exert different effects on muscle molecular morphology. Methods: Twenty-eight male rats were fed for 10 weeks in order to detect early defects induced by different dietary regimens: regular diet (R); regular diet with vitamin D supplementation (R-DS) and regular diet with vitamin D restriction (R-DR); high-fat butter-based diets (HFB-DS and HFB-DR) with 41% energy from fat; high-fat extra-virgin olive oil-based diets (HFEVO-DS and HFEVO-DR) with 41% energy from fat. IL-1β, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and VitD-receptor (VDR) expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Muscle fiber perimeter was measured by histology and morphometric analysis. Results: The muscle fibers of the HEVO-DS rats were hypertrophic, comparable to those of the R-DS rats. An inverse correlation existed between the dietary fat content and the perimeter of the muscle fibers (p < 0.01). In the HFB-DR rats, the muscle fibers appeared hypotrophic with an increase of IL-1β and a dramatic decrease of IGF-1 expression. Conclusions: High-fat western diet could impair muscle metabolism and lay the ground for subsequent muscle damage. VitD associated with a Mediterranean diet showed trophic action on the muscle fibers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mindfulness Is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals with a Depressive Symptomatology
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 232; doi:10.3390/nu10020232
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS,
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The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were performed. A total of 17,490 individuals were included. Among individuals with a depressive symptomatology, those with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a MetS (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57–0.93), a high waist circumference, a low HDL-cholesterol level and an elevated fasting blood glucose level (all p <0.05). In those without depressive symptomatology, individuals with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a high waist circumference (p <0.01). In conclusion, higher mindfulness was associated with lower odds of developing a MetS only among individuals with a depressive symptomatology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Fibroin Enzymatic Hydrolysate on Memory Improvement: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 233; doi:10.3390/nu10020233
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
The consumption of a specifically prepared silk fibroin protein enzymatic hydrolysate (FPEH) has been reported to improve cognitive function in healthy humans. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of the FPEH on memory. Healthy adults with an
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The consumption of a specifically prepared silk fibroin protein enzymatic hydrolysate (FPEH) has been reported to improve cognitive function in healthy humans. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of the FPEH on memory. Healthy adults with an average age of approximately 55 years were administered doses of 0, 280, 400 and 600 mg of FPEH per day in two divided doses for 3 weeks. The Rey–Kim Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Rey–Kim Complex Figure Test of the Rey–Kim Memory Test were used to evaluate memory at baseline and after 3 weeks. The scores for each test were combined into the memory quotient score (MQ). Learning gradient, memory maintenance, retrieval efficacy, and drawing/recall scores were also compared. After 3 weeks of FPEH, dose-dependent increases were observed for the MQ, the learning gradient, the numbers of words remembered, the retrieval efficiency, and drawing/recall. The optimal dose for FPEH was 400 or 600 mg, depending on the end point measured. No adverse effects were reported. FPEH significantly improved measurements of memory in healthy adults by 3 weeks at doses over 280 mg daily, with an apparent plateau effect at 400–600 mg daily. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Bone Mineral Density of Femoral Neck and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Biological Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 234; doi:10.3390/nu10020234
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) induces rapid remission. However, osteoporosis and its management remains a problem. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) evaluates the risk of malnutrition-related complications in elderly patients and has been shown to be
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Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) induces rapid remission. However, osteoporosis and its management remains a problem. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) evaluates the risk of malnutrition-related complications in elderly patients and has been shown to be a significant predictor of many diseases. We evaluated the correlation between GNRI and RA activity. In addition, risk factors for femoral neck bone loss were evaluated in RA patients treated with bDMARDs. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 146 patients with RA, collecting and recording the patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Inverse correlations were observed between GNRI and disease duration, disease activity score-28 joint count serum C-reactive protein (CRP), simple disease activity index, modified health assessment questionnaire score and CRP. GNRI showed correlation with femoral neck BMD and femoral neck BMD ≤ 70% of young adult men (YAM). Multiple regression analysis showed that female sex, increased age and lower GNRI were risk factors for lower BMD of the femoral neck. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (odd ratio: 3.67) and lower GNRI (odd ratio: 0.87) were risk factors for BMD ≤ 70% of YAM. Because the GNRI is a simple method, it might be a simple predictor for RA activity and BMD status in RA patients. Complementary nutritional therapies might improve RA activity and osteoporosis in RA patients who have undergone treatment with bDMARDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 236; doi:10.3390/nu10020236
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations
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Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate [HCO3] and lactate [La] in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female) elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3], and blood [La] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3], or [La], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day−1) (95% CI = (10.44; 36.04)). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Fiber Intake and Insulin Resistance in 6374 Adults: The Role of Abdominal Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 237; doi:10.3390/nu10020237
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate the relationship between fiber intake and insulin resistance, indexed using HOMA (homeostatic model assessment), in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES) sample of 6374 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the influence of
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A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate the relationship between fiber intake and insulin resistance, indexed using HOMA (homeostatic model assessment), in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES) sample of 6374 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the influence of covariates on the association. A third aim was to compare HOMA levels between two groups based on the recommended intake of 14 g of fiber per 1000 kilocalories (kcal). Fiber intake was measured using a 24-h recall. With demographic variables controlled, results showed that HOMA differed across High, Moderate, and Low fiber categories (F = 5.4, p = 0.0072). Adjusting for the demographic variables, the possible misreporting of energy intake, smoking, and physical activity strengthened the relationship (F = 8.0, p = 0.0009), which remained significant after adjusting for body fat (F = 7.0, p = 0.0019) and body mass index (BMI) (F = 4.9, p = 0.0108), with the other covariates. However, the fiber–HOMA relationship was eliminated after adjusting for waist circumference (F = 2.3, p = 0.1050). Dividing participants based on the recommended 14-g standard resulted in meaningful HOMA differences (F = 16.4, p = 0.0002), and the association was not eliminated after controlling for waist circumference. Apparently, adults with high fiber consumption have less insulin resistance than their counterparts. However, much of the association is due to differences in waist circumference, unless the recommended intake of fiber is attained. Full article
Open AccessArticle Less Waste on Waist Measurements: Determination of Optimal Waist Circumference Measurement Site to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 239; doi:10.3390/nu10020239
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist
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With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist circumference (WC) measurement sites could provide accurate estimations of VAT, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a gold standard for measuring VAT, in postmenopausal women with obesity. VAT volume was measured by MRI of the total abdomen in 97 women aged 57.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± SEM), mean body mass index 34.5 ± 0.2 kg/m2. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WCmid), the narrowest point of the torso (WCnarrow), and at the level of the umbilicus (WCumbilicus). WC differed significantly according to measurement site, with WCnarrow (102.1 ± 0.7 cm) < WCmid (108.3 ± 0.7 cm) < WCumbilicus (115.7 ± 0.8 cm) (p < 0.001). WCmid, WCnarrow and WCumbilicus were all significantly correlated with VAT, as measured by MRI (r = 0.581, 0.563 and 0.390, respectively; p < 0.001 for all), but the relationships between WCmid or WCnarrow and VAT determined by MRI were stronger than for WCumbilicus. Measurement of either WCmid or WCnarrow provides valid estimates of VAT in postmenopausal women with obesity, with WCnarrow being favoured in light of its greater ease and speed of measurement in this population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pilot Testing a Photo-Based Food Diary in Nine- to Twelve- Year Old- Children from Dunedin, New Zealand
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 240; doi:10.3390/nu10020240
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate if an Evernote app-based electronic food diary is an acceptable method to measure nutrient intake in children aged 9–12 years. A convenience sample of 16 nine- to twelve-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a paper-based
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The purpose of the study was to investigate if an Evernote app-based electronic food diary is an acceptable method to measure nutrient intake in children aged 9–12 years. A convenience sample of 16 nine- to twelve-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a paper-based food dairy on four days, followed by four more days using a photo-based diary on an iPod. This photo-based diary used a combination of photographs and short written descriptions of foods consumed. The photo-based diaries produced similar results to written diaries for all macronutrients and major micronutrients (e.g., calcium, fibre, vitamin C). Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods for all nutrients, except sugars, were above 0.3. However, burden on researchers and participants was reduced for the photo-based diary, primarily due to the additional information obtained from photographs. Participating children needed less help from parents with completing the electronic diaries and preferred them to the paper version. This electronic diary is likely to be suitable, after additional formal validity testing, for use in measuring nutrient intake in children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bovine α-Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (α-LAH) Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 242; doi:10.3390/nu10020242
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+) radical
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Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+) radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH) on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. The insulin resistance model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice with HFD (60% kcal from fat) for eight weeks. Then, the mice were fed with HFD and bovine α-LAH of different doses (100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w.) for another 12 weeks to evaluate its protective effects against HFD-induced insulin resistance. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT) were conducted after intervention with α-LAH for 10 weeks and 11 weeks, respectively. Results showed that bovine α-LAH significantly reduced body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) levels, lowered the area-under-the-curve (AUC) during OGTT and ipITT, and downregulated inflammation-related gene [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1] expression in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, bovine α-LAH also suppressed insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation (Ser307, Ser612), enhanced protein kinase B (known as Akt) phosphorylation, and inhibited the activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. These results suggested that bovine α-LAH could ameliorate adipose insulin resistance and inflammation through IKK and MAPK signaling pathways in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Resveratrol and Pterostilbene Exhibit Anticancer Properties Involving the Downregulation of HPV Oncoprotein E6 in Cervical Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 243; doi:10.3390/nu10020243
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women living in developing countries. Due to a lack of affordable effective therapy, research into alternative anticancer compounds with low toxicity such as dietary polyphenols has continued. Our aim is to determine whether
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Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women living in developing countries. Due to a lack of affordable effective therapy, research into alternative anticancer compounds with low toxicity such as dietary polyphenols has continued. Our aim is to determine whether two structurally similar plant polyphenols, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit anticancer and anti-HPV (Human papillomavirus) activity against cervical cancer cells. To determine anticancer activity, extensive in vitro analyses were performed. Anti-HPV activity, through measuring E6 protein levels, subsequent downstream p53 effects, and caspase-3 activation, were studied to understand a possible mechanism of action. Both polyphenols are effective agents in targeting cervical cancer cells, having low IC50 values in the µM range. They decrease clonogenic survival, reduce cell migration, arrest cells at the S-phase, and reduce the number of mitotic cells. These findings were significant, with pterostilbene often being more effective than resveratrol. Resveratrol and to a greater extent pterostilbene downregulates the HPV oncoprotein E6, induces caspase-3 activation, and upregulates p53 protein levels. Results point to a mechanism that may involve the downregulation of the HPV E6 oncoprotein, activation of apoptotic pathways, and re-establishment of functional p53 protein, with pterostilbene showing greater efficacy than resveratrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle A Walnut-Enriched Diet Affects Gut Microbiome in Healthy Caucasian Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 244; doi:10.3390/nu10020244
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Regular walnut consumption is associated with better health. We have previously shown that eight weeks of walnut consumption (43 g/day) significantly improves lipids in healthy subjects. In the same study, gut microbiome was evaluated. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, 63 ±
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Regular walnut consumption is associated with better health. We have previously shown that eight weeks of walnut consumption (43 g/day) significantly improves lipids in healthy subjects. In the same study, gut microbiome was evaluated. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m2) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (eight weeks each); 96 subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet, while 98 subjects followed the diets in reverse order. While consuming the walnut-enriched diet, subjects were advised to either reduce fat or carbohydrates or both to account for the additional calories. Fecal samples were collected from 135 subjects at the end of the walnut-diet and the control-diet period for microbiome analyses. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing data was clustered with a 97% similarity into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). UniFrac distances were used to determine diversity between groups. Differential abundance was evaluated using the Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test. All analyses were performed using Rhea. Generalized UniFrac distance shows that walnut consumption significantly affects microbiome composition and diversity. Multidimensional scaling (metric and non-metric) indicates dissimilarities of approximately 5% between walnut and control (p = 0.02). The abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Bifidobacteria increased significantly (p < 0.02) while Clostridium sp. cluster XIVa species (Blautia; Anaerostipes) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during walnut consumption. The effect of walnut consumption on the microbiome only marginally depended on whether subjects replaced fat, carbohydrates or both while on walnuts. Daily intake of 43 g walnuts over eight weeks significantly affects the gut microbiome by enhancing probiotic- and butyric acid-producing species in healthy individuals. Further evaluation is required to establish whether these changes are preserved during longer walnut consumption and how these are linked to the observed changes in lipid metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 245; doi:10.3390/nu10020245
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Despite the negative effects of high sodium and low potassium consumption on cardiovascular health, their consumption has not been quantified in sites undergoing urbanization. We aimed to determine the sodium and potassium consumption in a semi-urban area in Peru with a cross-sectional study.
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Despite the negative effects of high sodium and low potassium consumption on cardiovascular health, their consumption has not been quantified in sites undergoing urbanization. We aimed to determine the sodium and potassium consumption in a semi-urban area in Peru with a cross-sectional study. 24-h urine samples were collected. The outcomes were mean consumption of sodium and potassium, as well as adherence to their consumption recommendation: <2 g/day and ≥3.51 g/day, respectively. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify socio-economic and clinical variables associated with the consumption recommendations of 602 participants, complete urine samples were found in 409: mean age of participants was 45.7 (standard deviation (SD): 16.2) years and 56% were women. The mean sodium and potassium consumption was 4.4 (SD: 2.1) and 2.0 (SD: 1.2) g/day. The sodium and potassium recommendation was met by 7.1% and 13.7% of the study sample; none of the participants met both recommendations. People not adherent to the sodium recommendation had higher diastolic (73.1 mmHg vs. 68.2 mmHg, p = 0.015) and systolic (113.1 mmHg vs. 106.3 mmHg, p = 0.047) blood pressure than those who comply with the recommendation. Public health actions ought to be implemented in areas undergoing urbanization to improve sodium and potassium consumption at the population level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cost-Effectiveness of a Specialized Oral Nutritional Supplementation for Malnourished Older Adult Patients in Spain
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 246; doi:10.3390/nu10020246
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition has been related to prolonged hospital stays, and to increases in readmission and mortality rates. In the NOURISH (Nutrition effect On Unplanned Readmissions and Survival in Hospitalized patients) study, administering a high protein oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HP-HMB) to hospitalised
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Malnutrition has been related to prolonged hospital stays, and to increases in readmission and mortality rates. In the NOURISH (Nutrition effect On Unplanned Readmissions and Survival in Hospitalized patients) study, administering a high protein oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HP-HMB) to hospitalised older adult patients led to a significant improvement in survival compared with a placebo treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether HP-HMB would be cost-effective in Spain. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System using time horizons of 90 days, 180 days, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years and lifetime. The difference in cost between patients treated with HP-HMB and placebo was €332.75. With the 90 days time horizon, the difference in life years gained (LYG) between both groups was 0.0096, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €34,700.62/LYG. With time horizons of 180 days, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years and lifetime, the respective ICERs were €13,711.68, €3377.96, €2253.32, €1127.34 and €563.84/LYG. This analysis suggests that administering HP-HMB to older adult patients admitted to Spanish hospitals during hospitalisation and after discharge could be a cost-effective intervention that would improve survival with a reduced marginal cost. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oleanolic Acid Exerts Osteoprotective Effects and Modulates Vitamin D Metabolism
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 247; doi:10.3390/nu10020247
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid with reported bone anti-resorption activities. The present study aimed to characterize its bone protective effects in vivo and to study its effects on vitamin D metabolism, both in vivo and in vitro. OA significantly increased bone mineral
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Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid with reported bone anti-resorption activities. The present study aimed to characterize its bone protective effects in vivo and to study its effects on vitamin D metabolism, both in vivo and in vitro. OA significantly increased bone mineral density, improved micro-architectural properties, reduced urinary Ca excretion, increased 1,25(OH)2D3 and renal CYP27B1 mRNA expression in mature C57BL/6 ovariectomised (OVX) mice. OA also improved bone properties, Ca balance, and exerted modulatory effects on renal CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expressions in aged normal female Sprague–Dawley rats. In addition, OA significantly increased renal CYP27B1 mRNA and promoter activity, and suppressed CYP24A1 mRNA and protein expressions in human proximal tubule HKC-8 cells. OA exerted bone protective effects in mature OVX mice and aged female rats. This action on bone might be, at least in part, associated with its effects on Ca and vitamin D metabolism. The present findings suggest that OA is a potential drug candidate for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exclusive Breastfeeding Rate and Complementary Feeding Indicators in China: A National Representative Survey in 2013
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 249; doi:10.3390/nu10020249
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding
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Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey) of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants. World Health Organization (WHO) infant and young child feeding indicators were firstly used to assess exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice nationwide. In total, 14,458 children aged under two years (0 to <730 days) were studied from 55 counties in 30 provinces in China. The crude exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was 20.7% (908/4381) and the weighted exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.6%. The crude prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were 52.5% (5286/10,071), 69.8% (7027/10,071), and 27.4% (2764/10,071) among children aged 6–23 months, respectively. The weighted rate was 53.7%, 69.1%, and 25.1%, respectively. Residential area, household income and maternal education were positively associated with the three complementary feeding indicators. The exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was low and complementary feeding practice was not optimal in China. Residential area, household income and maternal education might be used to target infants and young children to improve complementary feeding practice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metabolic Responses in Endothelial Cells Following Exposure to Ketone Bodies
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 250; doi:10.3390/nu10020250
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects
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The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage. However, cells pre-treated with KB for 48 h and subjected to a secondary oxidative insult (H2O2), significantly decreased DNA damage compared to control oxidized cells. This protection occurred by the activation of Nrf2 pathway. In KB-treated cells, we found increased levels of Nrf2 in nuclear extracts and higher gene expression of HO-1, a target gene of Nrf2, compared to control cells. These results suggest that KB, by inducing moderate oxidative stress, activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which induces the transcription of target genes involved in the cellular antioxidant defense system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australian Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 251; doi:10.3390/nu10020251 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition
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Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012). Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as “drag and drop” and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gender Differences in the Association between Dietary Pattern and the Incidence of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 252; doi:10.3390/nu10020252
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
We examined gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension, using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. A total of 5090 participants (2457 men and 2633 women) aged 40–69 years without hypertension at baseline were selected. Dietary
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We examined gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension, using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. A total of 5090 participants (2457 men and 2633 women) aged 40–69 years without hypertension at baseline were selected. Dietary patterns were obtained using factor analysis based on 26 food groups, evaluated by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive medication using the biennial measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Four dietary patterns were extracted: coffee, fat, and sweets; prudent; whole grains and legumes; and traditional (men)/Western (women). Women in the highest tertile of the whole grains and legumes pattern scores showed a lower risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.59–1.00, p-trend = 0.048). Other dietary patterns were not associated with hypertension in either men or women. A diet rich in whole grains and legumes is inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in Korean women, suggesting a gender difference in the association between diet and hypertension. Full article
Open AccessArticle Restoration of Muscle Glycogen and Functional Capacity: Role of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Co-Ingestion
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 253; doi:10.3390/nu10020253
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor
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The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3–6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required. Current nutritional guidelines to maximise muscle glycogen availability within limited recovery are provided under the assumption that similar fatigue mechanisms (i.e., muscle glycogen depletion) are involved during a repeated exercise bout. Indeed, recent data support the notion that muscle glycogen availability is a determinant of subsequent endurance capacity following limited recovery. Thus, carbohydrate ingestion can be utilised to influence the restoration of endurance capacity following exhaustive exercise. One strategy with the potential to accelerate muscle glycogen resynthesis and/or functional capacity beyond merely ingesting adequate carbohydrate is the co-ingestion of added protein. While numerous studies have been instigated, a consensus that is related to the influence of carbohydrate-protein ingestion in maximising muscle glycogen during short-term recovery and repeated exercise capacity has not been established. When considered collectively, carbohydrate intake during limited recovery appears to primarily determine muscle glycogen resynthesis and repeated exercise capacity. Thus, when the goal is to optimise repeated exercise capacity following short-term recovery, ingesting carbohydrate at an amount of ≥1.2 g kg body mass−1·h−1 can maximise muscle glycogen repletion. The addition of protein to carbohydrate during post-exercise recovery may be beneficial under circumstances when carbohydrate ingestion is sub-optimal (≤0.8 g kg body mass−1·h−1) for effective restoration of muscle glycogen and repeated exercise capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project)
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 254; doi:10.3390/nu10020254
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated
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Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22–3.55) as well as the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14–3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of fruit and vegetables, while negative attitudes towards natural products as well as a strong craving for sweets and using food as a reward were associated with less healthy dietary patterns. To improve the dietary habits of girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle l-Carnitine Supplementation in Older Women. A Pilot Study on Aging Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 255; doi:10.3390/nu10020255
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism
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Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism and anabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week l-carnitine supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, IGF-1, body composition and skeletal muscle strength in healthy human subjects over 65 years of age. Women between 65 and 70 years of age were supplemented for 24 weeks with either 1500 mg l-carnitine-l-tartrate or an isonitrogenous placebo per day in a double-blind fashion. Before and after the supplementation protocol, body mass and composition, as well as knee extensor and flexor muscle strength were determined. In the blood samples, free carnitine, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein and IGF-1 were determined. A marked increase in free plasma carnitine concentration was observed due to l-carnitine supplementation. No substantial changes in other parameters were noted. In the current study, supplementation for 24 weeks affected neither the skeletal muscle strength nor circulating markers in healthy women over 65 years of age. Positive and negative aspects of l-carnitine supplementation need to be clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 256; doi:10.3390/nu10020256
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not
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Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON) or high-fat diets (HFD) containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB), olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO), safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO), or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO) ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo. Full article
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