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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Spray-Dried Potato Juice as a Potential Functional Food Component with Gastrointestinal Protective Effects
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020259
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Background: Peptic ulcer disease, including its complications and functional dyspepsia, are prevalent gastrointestinal diseases, etiopathogenesis of which is associated with mucosal inflammation. Research into new therapeutics capable of preventing or curing gastrointestinal mucosal damage has been steadily developing over past decades. This study
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Background: Peptic ulcer disease, including its complications and functional dyspepsia, are prevalent gastrointestinal diseases, etiopathogenesis of which is associated with mucosal inflammation. Research into new therapeutics capable of preventing or curing gastrointestinal mucosal damage has been steadily developing over past decades. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a spray-dried preparation of potato juice is applicable for treating and preventing gastrointestinal mucosal damage. Methods: We assessed potential protective effects of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) against gut inflammation in the co-culture Caco-2/RAW264.7 system, as well as a gastroprotective activity in a rat model of gastric ulceration. Results: The obtained results indicated that SDPJ down-regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression and protein production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the co-culture model. Moreover, SDPJ provided dose-dependent protection against LPS-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. In rats, five-day pretreatment with SDPJ in doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg suppressed HCl/ethanol-induced TNF-α expression in gastric mucosa by 52% and 35%, respectively. In addition, the pretreatment with the lower dose of SDPJ reduced the incidence of ulcers (by 34%) expressed as ulcer index. Conclusion: The spray-dried potato juice appears to be an attractive candidate for ameliorating inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intake of 3 Eggs per Day When Compared to a Choline Bitartrate Supplement, Downregulates Cholesterol Synthesis without Changing the LDL/HDL Ratio
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020258
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is associated with high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The impact of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipid concentrations still remains a concern. The effects of egg intake in comparison to choline bitartrate supplement was studied in a young,
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is associated with high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The impact of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipid concentrations still remains a concern. The effects of egg intake in comparison to choline bitartrate supplement was studied in a young, healthy population. Thirty participants were enrolled for a 13-week intervention. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomized to consume either 3 eggs/day or a choline bitartrate supplement (~400 mg choline for both treatments) for 4-weeks each. After a 3-week washout period, they were allocated to the alternate treatment. Dietary records, plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) concentrations, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of regulatory genes for cholesterol homeostasis were assessed at the end of each intervention. Dietary intakes of saturated and monounsaturated fat were higher with the consumption of eggs compared to the choline period. In addition, higher plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (7.5%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (5%) and LDL-C (8.1%) were observed with egg consumption (p < 0.01), while no change was seen in LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, a key marker of heart disease risk. Compared to choline supplementation, intake of eggs resulted in higher concentrations of plasma apoA-I (8%) and apoE (17%) with no changes in apoB. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase expression were lower with egg consumption by 18% and 31%, respectively (p < 0.05), suggesting a compensation to the increased dietary cholesterol load. Therefore, dietary cholesterol from eggs appears to regulate endogenous synthesis of cholesterol in such a way that the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Cholesterol:Is It Related to Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Nutritive Sweeteners in the Packaged Food Supply—An Assessment across 4 Countries
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020257
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Increased interest among consumers in the reduction of dietary sugar intake has led to the wider availability of food products containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). However, the extent to which NNS are currently being used by manufacturers to sweeten processed food and beverage products,
[...] Read more.
Increased interest among consumers in the reduction of dietary sugar intake has led to the wider availability of food products containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). However, the extent to which NNS are currently being used by manufacturers to sweeten processed food and beverage products, and how NNS may be displacing added sugars as a sweetener is unknown. The current study utilized branded food composition databases from Australia, Mexico, New Zealand and the US to determine the percentage of processed food and beverage products for which there are nutrition data containing NNS and to compare total sugar density (g per 100 mL for beverages and g per 100 g for foods) between products with and without NNS. Ordinary least squares regression at the country-product level was performed to examine associations between presence of NNS and total sugar. Across all countries, 5% of products contained at least one NNS, with the highest prevalence among beverages (22%). Mexico had the highest percentage of products with NNS (11%), as compared to the United States (US) (4%), New Zealand (1%), and Australia (<1%). The presence of NNS was associated with lower mean total sugar density among beverages (range across countries: 7.5 to 8.7 g per 100 mL) and among foods (23.2 to 25.5 g per 100 g). Products with both added sugar ingredients and NNS had a lower overall mean total sugar density when compared to products containing only added sugar ingredients. Due to paucity of data on sales and market shares across these countries, our results do not reflect the extent to which consumers purchase NNS containing products. Continued monitoring of NNS in the food supply, extension of work from these data, and inclusion of market shares of products will be important as more countries introduce policies to reduce sugar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Nutritive Sweeteners: A Global Perspective)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020256
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not
[...] Read more.
Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON) or high-fat diets (HFD) containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB), olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO), safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO), or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO) ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle l-Carnitine Supplementation in Older Women. A Pilot Study on Aging Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020255
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism
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Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism and anabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week l-carnitine supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, IGF-1, body composition and skeletal muscle strength in healthy human subjects over 65 years of age. Women between 65 and 70 years of age were supplemented for 24 weeks with either 1500 mg l-carnitine-l-tartrate or an isonitrogenous placebo per day in a double-blind fashion. Before and after the supplementation protocol, body mass and composition, as well as knee extensor and flexor muscle strength were determined. In the blood samples, free carnitine, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein and IGF-1 were determined. A marked increase in free plasma carnitine concentration was observed due to l-carnitine supplementation. No substantial changes in other parameters were noted. In the current study, supplementation for 24 weeks affected neither the skeletal muscle strength nor circulating markers in healthy women over 65 years of age. Positive and negative aspects of l-carnitine supplementation need to be clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project)
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020254
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated
[...] Read more.
Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22–3.55) as well as the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14–3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of fruit and vegetables, while negative attitudes towards natural products as well as a strong craving for sweets and using food as a reward were associated with less healthy dietary patterns. To improve the dietary habits of girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Restoration of Muscle Glycogen and Functional Capacity: Role of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Co-Ingestion
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020253
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor
[...] Read more.
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3–6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required. Current nutritional guidelines to maximise muscle glycogen availability within limited recovery are provided under the assumption that similar fatigue mechanisms (i.e., muscle glycogen depletion) are involved during a repeated exercise bout. Indeed, recent data support the notion that muscle glycogen availability is a determinant of subsequent endurance capacity following limited recovery. Thus, carbohydrate ingestion can be utilised to influence the restoration of endurance capacity following exhaustive exercise. One strategy with the potential to accelerate muscle glycogen resynthesis and/or functional capacity beyond merely ingesting adequate carbohydrate is the co-ingestion of added protein. While numerous studies have been instigated, a consensus that is related to the influence of carbohydrate-protein ingestion in maximising muscle glycogen during short-term recovery and repeated exercise capacity has not been established. When considered collectively, carbohydrate intake during limited recovery appears to primarily determine muscle glycogen resynthesis and repeated exercise capacity. Thus, when the goal is to optimise repeated exercise capacity following short-term recovery, ingesting carbohydrate at an amount of ≥1.2 g kg body mass−1·h−1 can maximise muscle glycogen repletion. The addition of protein to carbohydrate during post-exercise recovery may be beneficial under circumstances when carbohydrate ingestion is sub-optimal (≤0.8 g kg body mass−1·h−1) for effective restoration of muscle glycogen and repeated exercise capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Gender Differences in the Association between Dietary Pattern and the Incidence of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020252
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
We examined gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension, using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. A total of 5090 participants (2457 men and 2633 women) aged 40–69 years without hypertension at baseline were selected. Dietary
[...] Read more.
We examined gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension, using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. A total of 5090 participants (2457 men and 2633 women) aged 40–69 years without hypertension at baseline were selected. Dietary patterns were obtained using factor analysis based on 26 food groups, evaluated by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive medication using the biennial measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Four dietary patterns were extracted: coffee, fat, and sweets; prudent; whole grains and legumes; and traditional (men)/Western (women). Women in the highest tertile of the whole grains and legumes pattern scores showed a lower risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.59–1.00, p-trend = 0.048). Other dietary patterns were not associated with hypertension in either men or women. A diet rich in whole grains and legumes is inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in Korean women, suggesting a gender difference in the association between diet and hypertension. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australian Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020251
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition
[...] Read more.
Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012). Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as “drag and drop” and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bovine α-Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (α-LAH) Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020242
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+) radical
[...] Read more.
Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+) radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH) on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. The insulin resistance model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice with HFD (60% kcal from fat) for eight weeks. Then, the mice were fed with HFD and bovine α-LAH of different doses (100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w.) for another 12 weeks to evaluate its protective effects against HFD-induced insulin resistance. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT) were conducted after intervention with α-LAH for 10 weeks and 11 weeks, respectively. Results showed that bovine α-LAH significantly reduced body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) levels, lowered the area-under-the-curve (AUC) during OGTT and ipITT, and downregulated inflammation-related gene [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1] expression in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, bovine α-LAH also suppressed insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation (Ser307, Ser612), enhanced protein kinase B (known as Akt) phosphorylation, and inhibited the activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. These results suggested that bovine α-LAH could ameliorate adipose insulin resistance and inflammation through IKK and MAPK signaling pathways in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Responses in Endothelial Cells Following Exposure to Ketone Bodies
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020250
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects
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The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage. However, cells pre-treated with KB for 48 h and subjected to a secondary oxidative insult (H2O2), significantly decreased DNA damage compared to control oxidized cells. This protection occurred by the activation of Nrf2 pathway. In KB-treated cells, we found increased levels of Nrf2 in nuclear extracts and higher gene expression of HO-1, a target gene of Nrf2, compared to control cells. These results suggest that KB, by inducing moderate oxidative stress, activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which induces the transcription of target genes involved in the cellular antioxidant defense system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exclusive Breastfeeding Rate and Complementary Feeding Indicators in China: A National Representative Survey in 2013
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020249
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding
[...] Read more.
Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey) of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants. World Health Organization (WHO) infant and young child feeding indicators were firstly used to assess exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice nationwide. In total, 14,458 children aged under two years (0 to <730 days) were studied from 55 counties in 30 provinces in China. The crude exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was 20.7% (908/4381) and the weighted exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.6%. The crude prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were 52.5% (5286/10,071), 69.8% (7027/10,071), and 27.4% (2764/10,071) among children aged 6–23 months, respectively. The weighted rate was 53.7%, 69.1%, and 25.1%, respectively. Residential area, household income and maternal education were positively associated with the three complementary feeding indicators. The exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was low and complementary feeding practice was not optimal in China. Residential area, household income and maternal education might be used to target infants and young children to improve complementary feeding practice. Full article
Open AccessReview The Evolving Role of Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement Use among Adults in the Age of Personalized Nutrition
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020248
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS) are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There
[...] Read more.
Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS) are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There are concerns associated with the excessive intake of certain nutrients, particularly folic acid, and potential untoward consequences. The advent of nutrigenomics and the enhanced ability to directly study the interactions between nutrition and genetic variants and expression will allow for the conduct of more targeted studies with specific endpoints and may ultimately lead to progress in the field of personalized nutrition. The role of MVMS in health maintenance and chronic disease prevention remains controversial. Conducting studies in this area has been hampered by, among other factors, inconsistent definitions of MVMS, ranging from as few as three vitamins to broad-spectrum products containing more than two dozen vitamins and minerals. Results from some observational studies and large-scale, randomized, controlled trials suggest that MVMS may reduce the risk of some forms of cancer and, potentially, cardiovascular disease. The ongoing COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS) is expected to build on this research and provide additional insights into these areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oleanolic Acid Exerts Osteoprotective Effects and Modulates Vitamin D Metabolism
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020247
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid with reported bone anti-resorption activities. The present study aimed to characterize its bone protective effects in vivo and to study its effects on vitamin D metabolism, both in vivo and in vitro. OA significantly increased bone mineral
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Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid with reported bone anti-resorption activities. The present study aimed to characterize its bone protective effects in vivo and to study its effects on vitamin D metabolism, both in vivo and in vitro. OA significantly increased bone mineral density, improved micro-architectural properties, reduced urinary Ca excretion, increased 1,25(OH)2D3 and renal CYP27B1 mRNA expression in mature C57BL/6 ovariectomised (OVX) mice. OA also improved bone properties, Ca balance, and exerted modulatory effects on renal CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expressions in aged normal female Sprague–Dawley rats. In addition, OA significantly increased renal CYP27B1 mRNA and promoter activity, and suppressed CYP24A1 mRNA and protein expressions in human proximal tubule HKC-8 cells. OA exerted bone protective effects in mature OVX mice and aged female rats. This action on bone might be, at least in part, associated with its effects on Ca and vitamin D metabolism. The present findings suggest that OA is a potential drug candidate for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cost-Effectiveness of a Specialized Oral Nutritional Supplementation for Malnourished Older Adult Patients in Spain
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020246
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition has been related to prolonged hospital stays, and to increases in readmission and mortality rates. In the NOURISH (Nutrition effect On Unplanned Readmissions and Survival in Hospitalized patients) study, administering a high protein oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HP-HMB) to hospitalised
[...] Read more.
Malnutrition has been related to prolonged hospital stays, and to increases in readmission and mortality rates. In the NOURISH (Nutrition effect On Unplanned Readmissions and Survival in Hospitalized patients) study, administering a high protein oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HP-HMB) to hospitalised older adult patients led to a significant improvement in survival compared with a placebo treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether HP-HMB would be cost-effective in Spain. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System using time horizons of 90 days, 180 days, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years and lifetime. The difference in cost between patients treated with HP-HMB and placebo was €332.75. With the 90 days time horizon, the difference in life years gained (LYG) between both groups was 0.0096, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €34,700.62/LYG. With time horizons of 180 days, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years and lifetime, the respective ICERs were €13,711.68, €3377.96, €2253.32, €1127.34 and €563.84/LYG. This analysis suggests that administering HP-HMB to older adult patients admitted to Spanish hospitals during hospitalisation and after discharge could be a cost-effective intervention that would improve survival with a reduced marginal cost. Full article
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