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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020117

Natural Dietary Pigments: Potential Mediators against Hepatic Damage Induced by Over-The-Counter Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs

1
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, University Center of Health Sciences, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44340, Mexico
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Basic Science Center, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 24 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2237 KB, uploaded 24 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are among the most widely prescribed and purchased drugs around the world. Most analgesics, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen, are metabolized in the liver. The hepatocytes are responsible for drug metabolism and detoxification. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are phase I enzymes expressed mainly in hepatocytes and they account for ≈75% of the metabolism of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. These metabolic reactions eliminate potentially toxic compounds but, paradoxically, also result in the generation of toxic or carcinogenic metabolites. Cumulative or overdoses of OTC analgesic drugs can induce acute liver failure (ALF) either directly or indirectly after their biotransformation. ALF is the result of massive death of hepatocytes induced by oxidative stress. There is an increased interest in the use of natural dietary products as nutritional supplements and/or medications to prevent or cure many diseases. The therapeutic activity of natural products may be associated with their antioxidant capacity, although additional mechanisms may also play a role (e.g., anti-inflammatory actions). Dietary antioxidants such as flavonoids, betalains and carotenoids play a preventive role against OTC analgesics-induced ALF. In this review, we will summarize the pathobiology of OTC analgesic-induced ALF and the use of natural pigments in its prevention and therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: analgesics; liver; acute liver failure; oxidative stress; antioxidant capacity analgesics; liver; acute liver failure; oxidative stress; antioxidant capacity
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González-Ponce, H.A.; Rincón-Sánchez, A.R.; Jaramillo-Juárez, F.; Moshage, H. Natural Dietary Pigments: Potential Mediators against Hepatic Damage Induced by Over-The-Counter Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs. Nutrients 2018, 10, 117.

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