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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 69; doi:10.3390/nu10010069

Malnutrition, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis Syndrome (MIA) and Diet Recommendations among End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis

Faculty of Medicine, Dietetics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Anny St. 12, 31-008 Kraków, Poland
Department of Diagnostics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 15A St., 31-501 Kraków, Poland
Department of Medical Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9 St., 30-688 Kraków, Poland
Dialysis Therapy Centre, St’ Queen Jadwiga Clinical District Hospital No. 2, Lwowska St. 60, 35-301 Rzeszów, Poland
Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszów, Kopisto Ave. 2a, 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
Diagnostic Department, University Hospital in Krakow, Kopernika 15B St., 31-501 Kraków, Poland
Department of Physiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16 St., 31-531 Kraków, Poland
Department of Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 15C, 31-501 Kraków, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1165 KB, uploaded 11 January 2018]   |  


Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome is one of the causes of increased mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the inflammation and nutritional status of patients in end-stage kidney disease treated with maintenance hemodialysis. The study included a group of 98 hemodialyzed patients with stage 5 CKD (38 women and 60 men). Albumin, prealbumin (PRE), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in serum samples collected before mid-week dialysis. Fruit and vegetables frequency intakes were assessed with a questionnaire. CRP was above the reference limit of 5 mg/L in 53% of patients. Moreover, the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) indicated the co-occurrence of inflammation and protein calorie malnutrition in 11% of patients, and the presence of either inflammation or malnutrition in 25%. The questionnaire revealed that hemodialyzed patients frequently exclude fruit and vegetables from their diets. Nearly 43% of the interviewed patients declared frequently eating vegetables, and 35% declared frequently eating fruit, a few times per week or less. The most frequently selected fruit and vegetables had a low antioxidant capacity. The strict dietary restrictions in CKD are difficult to fulfill, and if strictly followed, may lead to protein-calorie malnutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; chronic kidney disease; inflammation; hemodialysis diet; chronic kidney disease; inflammation; hemodialysis

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Maraj, M.; Kuśnierz-Cabala, B.; Dumnicka, P.; Gala-Błądzińska, A.; Gawlik, K.; Pawlica-Gosiewska, D.; Ząbek-Adamska, A.; Mazur-Laskowska, M.; Ceranowicz, P.; Kuźniewski, M. Malnutrition, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis Syndrome (MIA) and Diet Recommendations among End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 69.

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