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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 61; doi:10.3390/nu10010061

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Nutrition Are Associated with Bone Status in University Students

1
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain
2
Department of Nursing I, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Abstract

Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18–21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0.184; p = 0.035). SI was most closely related with very vigorous PA in males (β = 0.288; p = 0.040) and with the number of steps/day in females (β = 0.319; p = 0.002). An association between thigh muscle and SI was consistent in both sexes (β = 0.328; p < 0.001). Additionally, extension maximal force was a bone SI predictor factor in females (β = 0.263; p = 0.016) independent of thigh muscle perimeter. Calcium intake was the only nutrition parameter that had a positive relationship with SI (R = 0.217; p = 0.022). However, it was not included as a predictor for SI in our regression models. This study identifies predictors of bone status in each sex and indicates that muscle and bone interrelate with PA and fitness in young adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone health; university students; physical activity; muscle strength; body composition; nutrition bone health; university students; physical activity; muscle strength; body composition; nutrition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hervás, G.; Ruiz-Litago, F.; Irazusta, J.; Fernández-Atutxa, A.; Fraile-Bermúdez, A.B.; Zarrazquin, I. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Nutrition Are Associated with Bone Status in University Students. Nutrients 2018, 10, 61.

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