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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010015

Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNa), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
6
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
7
Department of Internal Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
8
Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar de Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
9
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
10
Human Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d’Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
11
Madrid Institute of Advanced Studies (IMDEA), IMDEA Food, 28049 Madrid, Spain
These authors share senior authorship.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract

DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group. Methylation was assessed at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed routes with differentially methylated CpG sites (CpGs) related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation, and signal transduction. Two CpGs were specifically selected: cg01081346–CPT1B/CHKB-CPT1B and cg17071192–GNAS/GNASAS, being associated with intermediate metabolism. Furthermore, cg01081346 was associated with PUFAs intake, showing a role for specific fatty acids on epigenetic modulation. Specific components of MedDiet, particularly nuts and EVOO, were able to induce methylation changes in several PWBCs genes. These changes may have potential benefits in health; especially those changes in genes related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation and signal transduction, which may contribute to explain the role of MedDiet and fat quality on health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; DNA methylation; nuts; olive oil; blood cells Mediterranean diet; DNA methylation; nuts; olive oil; blood cells
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Arpón, A.; Milagro, F.I.; Razquin, C.; Corella, D.; Estruch, R.; Fitó, M.; Marti, A.; Martínez-González, M.A.; Ros, E.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Riezu-Boj, J.-I.; Martínez, J.A. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids. Nutrients 2018, 10, 15.

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