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Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial
The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Purdue University, 700 W. State St., W. Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
USDA, ARS, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 430 W. Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
The University of Wisconsin, 1415 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Ohio State University, 480 W. 9th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2009; Accepted: 30 August 2009 / Published: 3 September 2009
Abstract: A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day), high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day), or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day). Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH)2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025); assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk) fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05) and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025). Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.
Keywords: calcium; dairy; energy restriction; multi-center; vitamin D
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Zemel, M.B.; Teegarden, D.; Van Loan, M.; Schoeller, D.A.; Matkovic, V.; Lyle, R.M.; Craig, B.A. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial. Nutrients 2009, 1, 83-100.
Zemel MB, Teegarden D, Van Loan M, Schoeller DA, Matkovic V, Lyle RM, Craig BA. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial. Nutrients. 2009; 1(1):83-100.
Zemel, Michael B.; Teegarden, Dorothy; Van Loan, Marta; Schoeller, Dale A.; Matkovic, Velimir; Lyle, Roseann M.; Craig, Bruce A. 2009. "Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial." Nutrients 1, no. 1: 83-100.