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Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 83-100; doi:10.3390/nu1010083

Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

1,* , 2
1 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA 2 Purdue University, 700 W. State St., W. Lafayette, IN 47907, USA 3 USDA, ARS, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 430 W. Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA 4 The University of Wisconsin, 1415 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA 5 Ohio State University, 480 W. 9th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 30 August 2009 / Published: 3 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day), high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day), or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day). Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH)2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025); assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk) fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05) and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025). Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.
Keywords: calcium; dairy; energy restriction; multi-center; vitamin D calcium; dairy; energy restriction; multi-center; vitamin D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Zemel, M.B.; Teegarden, D.; Van Loan, M.; Schoeller, D.A.; Matkovic, V.; Lyle, R.M.; Craig, B.A. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial. Nutrients 2009, 1, 83-100.

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