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Nutrients, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2009), Pages 1-110

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Why Nutrients?
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/nu1010001
Received: 8 July 2009 / Published: 9 July 2009
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Abstract The field of nutrition continues to attract increasing interest from health professionals, including dietitians, sports nutritionists and medical practitioners, from biomedical, agricultural, nutritional and food scientists and from health conscious consumers alike. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Effects of Maté Tea Intake on ex Vivo LDL Peroxidation Induced by Three Different Pathways
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 18-29; doi:10.3390/nu1010018
Received: 20 April 2009 / Accepted: 24 June 2009 / Published: 29 June 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native South America plant widely consumed as different beverages. Yerba maté leaves contains high concentrations of polyphenols that are responsible for its high in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant [...] Read more.
Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native South America plant widely consumed as different beverages. Yerba maté leaves contains high concentrations of polyphenols that are responsible for its high in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant properties vis a vis LDL particles has not yet been studied for maté tea, the roasted yerba maté product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of maté tea ingestion ex vivo on human LDL. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples of healthy women were taken in three different times: before drinking the tea, one hour later and after one week (7 days) of daily consumption of maté tea. The isolated LDL was oxidized by three different pathways [copper (CuSO4), lipoxygenase and peroxynitrite (SIN-1)]. Conjugated dienes and structural modifications on LDL were evaluated. Ingestion of maté tea increased LDL resistance towards ex vivo copper oxidation, but did not alter the peroxidation pattern when SIN-1 or lipoxygenase were used as oxidants Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 50-70; doi:10.3390/nu1010050
Received: 9 July 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 14 August 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and [...] Read more.
Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity) and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
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Open AccessArticle Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 83-100; doi:10.3390/nu1010083
Received: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 30 August 2009 / Published: 3 September 2009
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day), high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day), or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day). Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH)2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025); assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk) fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05) and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025). Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 3-17; doi:10.3390/nu1010003
Received: 14 April 2009 / Accepted: 14 May 2009 / Published: 10 June 2009
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Abstract
Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to [...] Read more.
Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17β-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview Selenium in Camel – A Review
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 30-49; doi:10.3390/nu1010030
Received: 11 May 2009 / Accepted: 5 July 2009 / Published: 8 July 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Requirements for trace minerals in camels, particularly selenium, are not well-known. Selenium supplementation using a pharmaceutical form or commercial mineral mixture is common practice in camels to address the cardiomyopathy often attributed to selenium deficiency. This supplementation is often empirical and based [...] Read more.
Requirements for trace minerals in camels, particularly selenium, are not well-known. Selenium supplementation using a pharmaceutical form or commercial mineral mixture is common practice in camels to address the cardiomyopathy often attributed to selenium deficiency. This supplementation is often empirical and based on estimated needs for cattle. Nowadays the use of selenium in animal foodstuffs is commonplace and further investigation of its metabolism (ingestion, dynamic of storage-destocking, excretion) in camels is warranted. The present review aimed to synthesize all the experimental research (comparative selenium status in cow and camel, response to different levels of supplementation at different physiological stages, excretion maternal transfer, experimental toxicosis) and field observations (deficiency, supplementation practices) undertaken in camels. The results underline the particularity of the unique metabolic profile of the camel and lead to practical recommendations for supplementation in camels, highlighting its relative sensitivity to excess Se intake at lower levels than in cattle. The maximal tolerable dose is 8 mg and the recommended doses range from 2 to 4 mg. Full article
Open AccessReview Animal Nutrition and Lipids in Animal Products and Their Contribution to Human Intake and Health
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 71-82; doi:10.3390/nu1010071
Received: 13 July 2009 / Accepted: 11 August 2009 / Published: 14 August 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated [...] Read more.
Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) through alteration of the cow’s diet are examined. Also, few people achieve minimum recommended intakes (~450–500 mg/d) of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Enrichment of EPA+DHA in poultry meat via bird nutrition is described and how this would impact on habitual intake is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessReview Monitoring Healthy Metabolic Trajectories with Nutritional Metabonomics
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 101-110; doi:10.3390/nu1010101
Received: 3 August 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2009 / Published: 4 September 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metabonomics is a well established analytical approach for the analysis of physiological regulatory processes via the metabolic profiling of biofluids and tissues in living organisms. Its potential is fully exploited in the field of “nutrimetabonomics” that aims at assessing the metabolic effects [...] Read more.
Metabonomics is a well established analytical approach for the analysis of physiological regulatory processes via the metabolic profiling of biofluids and tissues in living organisms. Its potential is fully exploited in the field of “nutrimetabonomics” that aims at assessing the metabolic effects of active ingredients and foods in individuals. Yet, one of the greatest challenges in nutrition research is to decipher the critical interactions between mammalian organisms and environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. “Nutrimetabonomics” is today foreseen as a powerful approach for future nutritional programs tailored at health maintenance and disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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