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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(4), 338;

Retrieving 3-D Large Displacements of Mining Areas from a Single Amplitude Pair of SAR Using Offset Tracking

School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Institute of Mine Surveying, Mining Subsidence Engineering and Geophysics in Mining, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhong Lu and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Landslides)
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Due to the side-looking imaging geometry of the current synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors, only ground deformation along the radar’s line-of-sight (LOS) and azimuth directions can be potentially obtained from a single amplitude pair (SAP) of SAR using offset tracking (OT) procedures. This significantly hinders the accurate assessment of mining-related hazards and better understanding of the mining subsidence mechanism. In this paper, we propose a method for completely retrieving three-dimensional (3-D) mining-induced displacements with OT-derived observations of LOS deformation from a single amplitude pair of SAR (referred to as OT-SAP hereinafter). The OT-SAP method first constructs two extra constraints at each pixel of the mining area based on the proportional relationship between the horizontal motion of the mining area and the gradients of the vertical subsidence in the east and north directions. The full 3-D mining-induced displacements are then solved by coupling the two constructed extra constraints with the OT-derived observations of the LOS deformation. The Daliuta coal mining area in China was selected to test the proposed OT-SAP method. The results show that the maximum 3-D displacements of this mining area were about 4.3 m, 1.1 m, and 1.3 m in the vertical, east, and north directions, respectively, from 21 November 2012 to 6 February 2013. The accuracies of the retrieved displacements in the vertical and horizontal directions are about 0.201 m and 0.214 m, respectively, which are much smaller than the mining-induced displacements in this mining area and can satisfy the basic requirements of mining deformation monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3-D displacements; coal mining area; mining subsidence; InSAR; offset tracking; SAR 3-D displacements; coal mining area; mining subsidence; InSAR; offset tracking; SAR

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, J.; Preusse, A.; Yi, H.; Hu, J.; Feng, G.; Papst, M. Retrieving 3-D Large Displacements of Mining Areas from a Single Amplitude Pair of SAR Using Offset Tracking. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 338.

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