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Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15152-15178; doi:10.3390/su71115152

Impact of Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Storage in Isolated Systems: The Case of Tenerife

1
Facultad de Economía, Empresa y Turismo, Universidad de La Laguna, Camino la Hornera, s/n., La Laguna 38071, Spain
2
Dpto. Economía, Contabilidad y Finanzas, Instituto Universitario de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Universidad de La Laguna, Camino la Hornera, s/n., La Laguna 38071, Spain
3
Dpto. Economía, Contabilidad y Finanzas, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38071, Spain
4
Facultad de Económia, Empresa y Turismo, Instituto Universitario de Desarrollo Regional, Universidad de La Laguna, Camino la Hornera, s/n., La Laguna 38071, Spain
5
RITM Research Lab, University Paris-Sud, Sceaux, 92330, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arnulf Jäger-Waldau
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Abstract

Isolated regions are highly dependent on fossil fuels. The use of endogenous sources and the improvement in energy efficiency in all of the consumption activities are the two main ways to reduce the dependence of petroleum-derived fuels. Tenerife offers an excellent renewable resource (hours of sun and wind). However, the massive development of these technologies could cause important operational problems within the electric power grids, because of the small size of the system. In this paper, we explore the option of coupling an electric vehicle fleet as a distributed energy storage system to increase the participation of renewables in an isolated power system, i.e., Tenerife Island. A model simulator has been used to evaluate five key outputs, that is the renewable share, the energy spilled, the CO2 emissions, the levelized cost of generating electricity and fuel dependence, under alternative scenarios. Comparing to the current situation, combining a gradual renewable installed capacity and the introduction of an electric vehicle fleet using alternative charging strategies, a total of 30 different scenarios have been evaluated. Results shows that the impact of 50,000 electric vehicles would increase the renewable share in the electricity mix of the island up to 30%, reduce CO2 emissions by 27%, the total cost of electric generation by 6% and the oil internal market by 16%. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; isolated system; renewable energy; Canary Islands; energy storage system; vehicle to grid electric vehicles; isolated system; renewable energy; Canary Islands; energy storage system; vehicle to grid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Díaz, A.R.; Ramos-Real, F.J.; Marrero, G.A.; Perez, Y. Impact of Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Storage in Isolated Systems: The Case of Tenerife. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15152-15178.

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