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Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 672-687; doi:10.3390/fi4030672

Stuxnet: What Has Changed?

Department of Defense Analysis, Naval Postgraduate School, 589 Dyer Road, Monterey, CA 93943, USA
Received: 17 May 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 16 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aftermath of Stuxnet)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [210 KB, uploaded 16 July 2012]


This paper considers the impact of Stuxnet on cyber-attacks and cyber-defense. It first reviews trends in cyber-weapons and how Stuxnet fits into these trends. Because Stuxnet targeted an industrial control system in order to wreak physical damage, the focus is on weapons that target systems of that type and produce physical effects. The paper then examines the impact of Stuxnet on various domains of action where cyber-attacks play a role, including state-level conflict, terrorism, activism, crime, and pranks. For each domain, it considers the potential for new types of cyber-attacks, especially attacks against industrial control systems, and whether such attacks would be consistent with other trends in the domain. Finally, the paper considers the impact of Stuxnet on cyber-defense. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyber-attack; cyber-security; cyber-warfare; industrial control systems cyber-attack; cyber-security; cyber-warfare; industrial control systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Denning, D.E. Stuxnet: What Has Changed? Future Internet 2012, 4, 672-687.

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