Next Article in Journal
Host Adaptation of Soybean Dwarf Virus Following Serial Passages on Pea (Pisum sativum) and Soybean (Glycine max)
Next Article in Special Issue
The Response of Heterotrophic Prokaryote and Viral Communities to Labile Organic Carbon Inputs Is Controlled by the Predator Food Chain Structure
Previous Article in Journal
Biophysical Mode-of-Action and Selectivity Analysis of Allosteric Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Polymerase
Previous Article in Special Issue
Two Synechococcus genes, Two Different Effects on Cyanophage Infection
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2017, 9(6), 152; doi:10.3390/v9060152

Nutrients and Other Environmental Factors Influence Virus Abundances across Oxic and Hypoxic Marine Environments

1
Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
Institute of Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
3
Hakai Institute, P.O. Box 309, Heriot Bay, BC, Canada
4
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada
5
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
Current Address: Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Viruses 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1224 KB, uploaded 20 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Models of varying complexity were tested and compared for best fit with the Akaike Information Criterion, and revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, as well as prokaryote abundances, either individually or combined, had significant effects on viral abundances in all but hypoxic environments, which were only explained by a combination of physical and chemical factors. Nonetheless, multivariate models of environmental variables showed high explanatory power, matching or surpassing that of prokaryote abundance alone. Incorporating both environmental variables and prokaryote abundances into multivariate models significantly improved the explanatory power of the models, except in hypoxic environments. These findings demonstrate that environmental factors could be as important as, or even more important than, prokaryote abundance in describing viral abundance across wide-ranging marine environments View Full-Text
Keywords: viral abundance; environmental variables; multivariate model; Akaike Information Criterion viral abundance; environmental variables; multivariate model; Akaike Information Criterion
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Finke, J.F.; Hunt, B.P.; Winter, C.; Carmack, E.C.; Suttle, C.A. Nutrients and Other Environmental Factors Influence Virus Abundances across Oxic and Hypoxic Marine Environments. Viruses 2017, 9, 152.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top