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Viruses 2017, 9(1), 2;

Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karen Beemon and Robert Hogg
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Interactions with Host RNA Decay Pathways)
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The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA) to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome) is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA decay; RNA-protein interactions; decapping; Xrn1; exosome; TRAMP; exonuclease; RNAse; intrinsic immunity; antiviral RNA decay; RNA-protein interactions; decapping; Xrn1; exosome; TRAMP; exonuclease; RNAse; intrinsic immunity; antiviral

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Molleston, J.M.; Cherry, S. Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense. Viruses 2017, 9, 2.

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