Next Article in Journal
Orchestrating the Selection and Packaging of Genomic RNA by Retroviruses: An Ensemble of Viral and Host Factors
Next Article in Special Issue
Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus
Previous Article in Journal
Markers for Ongoing or Previous Hepatitis E Virus Infection Are as Common in Wild Ungulates as in Humans in Sweden
Previous Article in Special Issue
Organization, Function, and Therapeutic Targeting of the Morbillivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2016, 8(9), 250; doi:10.3390/v8090250

The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H) Protein

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College St., Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
4
Department of Pediatrics and Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Plemper
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Measles Virus Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6066 KB, uploaded 23 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

The hemagglutinin (H) protein of measles virus (MeV) interacts with a cellular receptor which constitutes the initial stage of infection. Binding of H to this host cell receptor subsequently triggers the F protein to activate fusion between virus and host plasma membranes. The search for MeV receptors began with vaccine/laboratory virus strains and evolved to more relevant receptors used by wild-type MeV. Vaccine or laboratory strains of measles virus have been adapted to grow in common cell lines such as Vero and HeLa cells, and were found to use membrane cofactor protein (CD46) as a receptor. CD46 is a regulator that normally prevents cells from complement-mediated self-destruction, and is found on the surface of all human cells, with the exception of erythrocytes. Mutations in the H protein, which occur during adaptation and allow the virus to use CD46 as a receptor, have been identified. Wild-type isolates of measles virus cannot use the CD46 receptor. However, both vaccine/laboratory and wild-type strains can use an immune cell receptor called signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family member 1 (SLAMF1; also called CD150) and a recently discovered epithelial receptor known as Nectin-4. SLAMF1 is found on activated B, T, dendritic, and monocyte cells, and is the initial target for infections by measles virus. Nectin-4 is an adherens junction protein found at the basal surfaces of many polarized epithelial cells, including those of the airways. It is also over-expressed on the apical and basal surfaces of many adenocarcinomas, and is a cancer marker for metastasis and tumor survival. Nectin-4 is a secondary exit receptor which allows measles virus to replicate and amplify in the airways, where the virus is expelled from the body in aerosol droplets. The amino acid residues of H protein that are involved in binding to each of the receptors have been identified through X-ray crystallography and site-specific mutagenesis. Recombinant measles “blind” to each of these receptors have been constructed, allowing the virus to selectively infect receptor specific cell lines. Finally, the observations that SLAMF1 is found on lymphomas and that Nectin-4 is expressed on the cell surfaces of many adenocarcinomas highlight the potential of measles virus for oncolytic therapy. Although CD46 is also upregulated on many tumors, it is less useful as a target for cancer therapy, since normal human cells express this protein on their surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: measles virus; membrane cofactor protein; CD46; signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family member 1; SLAMF1; SLAM; CD150; nectin-4; polio virus receptor like protein 4; PVRL4 measles virus; membrane cofactor protein; CD46; signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family member 1; SLAMF1; SLAM; CD150; nectin-4; polio virus receptor like protein 4; PVRL4
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, L.-T.; Richardson, C.D. The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H) Protein. Viruses 2016, 8, 250.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top