Next Article in Journal
Cell Culture Models for the Investigation of Hepatitis B and D Virus Infection
Next Article in Special Issue
Cross- and Co-Packaging of Retroviral RNAs and Their Consequences
Previous Article in Journal
The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H) Protein
Previous Article in Special Issue
Functional Equivalence of Retroviral MA Domains in Facilitating Psi RNA Binding Specificity by Gag
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2016, 8(9), 257; doi:10.3390/v8090257

Orchestrating the Selection and Packaging of Genomic RNA by Retroviruses: An Ensemble of Viral and Host Factors

1
Division of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey PA 17033, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey PA 17033, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roland Marquet and Polly Roy
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Packaging)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1267 KB, uploaded 20 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Infectious retrovirus particles contain two copies of unspliced viral RNA that serve as the viral genome. Unspliced retroviral RNA is transcribed in the nucleus by the host RNA polymerase II and has three potential fates: (1) it can be spliced into subgenomic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the translation of viral proteins; or it can remain unspliced to serve as either (2) the mRNA for the translation of Gag and Gag–Pol; or (3) the genomic RNA (gRNA) that is packaged into virions. The Gag structural protein recognizes and binds the unspliced viral RNA to select it as a genome, which is selected in preference to spliced viral RNAs and cellular RNAs. In this review, we summarize the current state of understanding about how retroviral packaging is orchestrated within the cell and explore potential new mechanisms based on recent discoveries in the field. We discuss the cis-acting elements in the unspliced viral RNA and the properties of the Gag protein that are required for their interaction. In addition, we discuss the role of host factors in influencing the fate of the newly transcribed viral RNA, current models for how retroviruses distinguish unspliced viral mRNA from viral genomic RNA, and the possible subcellular sites of genomic RNA dimerization and selection by Gag. Although this review centers primarily on the wealth of data available for the alpharetrovirus Rous sarcoma virus, in which a discrete RNA packaging sequence has been identified, we have also summarized the cis- and trans-acting factors as well as the mechanisms governing gRNA packaging of other retroviruses for comparison. View Full-Text
Keywords: retroviruses; viral RNA packaging; retroviral Gag proteins; subcellular trafficking; virus–cell interactions; viral RNA export; retrovirus assembly retroviruses; viral RNA packaging; retroviral Gag proteins; subcellular trafficking; virus–cell interactions; viral RNA export; retrovirus assembly
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kaddis Maldonado, R.J.; Parent, L.J. Orchestrating the Selection and Packaging of Genomic RNA by Retroviruses: An Ensemble of Viral and Host Factors. Viruses 2016, 8, 257.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top