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Viruses 2016, 8(6), 177; doi:10.3390/v8060177

Badnaviruses: The Current Global Scenario

1
ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kozhikode 673012, Kerala, India
2
UNIBAS, Botanical Institute, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
3
ICAR-National Research Centre for Banana, Tiruchirapalli 620102, Tamil Nadu, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Ploss
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 25 May 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Abstract

Badnaviruses (Family: Caulimoviridae; Genus: Badnavirus) are non-enveloped bacilliform DNA viruses with a monopartite genome containing about 7.2 to 9.2 kb of dsDNA with three to seven open reading frames. They are transmitted by mealybugs and a few species by aphids in a semi-persistent manner. They are one of the most important plant virus groups and have emerged as serious pathogens affecting the cultivation of several horticultural crops in the tropics, especially banana, black pepper, cocoa, citrus, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Some badnaviruses are also known as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genomes and a few such endogenous viruses can be awakened, e.g., through abiotic stress, giving rise to infective episomal forms. The presence of endogenous badnaviruses poses a new challenge for the fool-proof diagnosis, taxonomy, and management of the diseases. The present review aims to highlight emerging disease problems, virus characteristics, transmission, and diagnosis of badnaviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: badnavirus; integration; endogenous badnavirus; detection; distribution; host range; transmission badnavirus; integration; endogenous badnavirus; detection; distribution; host range; transmission
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bhat, A.I.; Hohn, T.; Selvarajan, R. Badnaviruses: The Current Global Scenario. Viruses 2016, 8, 177.

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