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Viruses 2016, 8(2), 43; doi:10.3390/v8020043

To Infection and Beyond: The Multi-Pronged Anti-Cancer Mechanisms of Oncolytic Viruses

1
Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
3
Division of Hematology/Oncology/Blood and Marrow Transplant, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
4
School of Medicine, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
5
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: E. Antonio Chiocca and Martine L.M. Lamfers
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3349 KB, uploaded 16 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Over the past 1–2 decades we have witnessed a resurgence of efforts to therapeutically exploit the attributes of lytic viruses to infect and kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We now appreciate that the utility of viruses for treating cancer extends far beyond lytic cell death. Viruses are also capable of eliciting humoral and cellular innate and adaptive immune responses that may be directed not only at virus-infected cells but also at uninfected cancer cells. Here we review our current understanding of this bystander effect, and divide the mechanisms into lytic, cytokine, innate cellular, and adaptive phases. Knowing the key pathways and molecular players during virus infection in the context of the cancer microenvironment will be critical to devise strategies to maximize the therapeutic effects of oncolytic viroimmunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy; immunotherapy; cancer oncolytic virotherapy; immunotherapy; cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cassady, K.A.; Haworth, K.B.; Jackson, J.; Markert, J.M.; Cripe, T.P. To Infection and Beyond: The Multi-Pronged Anti-Cancer Mechanisms of Oncolytic Viruses. Viruses 2016, 8, 43.

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