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Viruses 2016, 8(2), 45; doi:10.3390/v8020045

Big Data Offers Novel Insights for Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy

1
Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada
2
Department of Biology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: E. Antonio Chiocca and Martine L.M. Lamfers
Received: 15 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1860 KB, uploaded 5 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Large-scale assays, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing and various “omics” technologies, have explored multiple aspects of the immune response following virus infection, often from a public health perspective. Yet a lack of similar data exists for monitoring immune engagement during oncolytic virus immunotherapy (OVIT) in the cancer setting. Tracking immune signatures at the tumour site can create a snapshot or longitudinally analyse immune cell activation, infiltration and functionality within global populations or individual cells. Mapping immune changes over the course of oncolytic biotherapy—from initial infection to tumour stabilisation/regression through to long-term cure or escape/relapse—has the potential to generate important therapeutic insights around virus-host interactions. Further, correlating such immune signatures with specific tumour outcomes has significant value for guiding the development of novel oncolytic virus immunotherapy strategies. Here, we provide insights for OVIT from large-scale analyses of immune populations in the infection, vaccination and immunotherapy setting. We analyse several approaches to manipulating immune engagement during OVIT. We further explore immunocentric changes in the tumour tissue following immunotherapy, and compile several immune signatures of therapeutic success. Ultimately, we highlight clinically relevant large-scale approaches with the potential to strengthen future oncolytic strategies to optimally engage the immune system. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic; virus; immunotherapy; immunology; immune; screen; large-scale oncolytic; virus; immunotherapy; immunology; immune; screen; large-scale
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Swift, S.L.; Stojdl, D.F. Big Data Offers Novel Insights for Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy. Viruses 2016, 8, 45.

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