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Viruses 2016, 8(10), 282; doi:10.3390/v8100282

The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Academic Editor: Richard K. Plemper
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Measles Virus Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [589 KB, uploaded 12 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10–14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2–3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: rash; viral RNA persistence; antibody maturation; inflammasome rash; viral RNA persistence; antibody maturation; inflammasome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Griffin, D.E. The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity. Viruses 2016, 8, 282.

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