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Viruses 2016, 8(10), 275; doi:10.3390/v8100275

The Role of the Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1) US3-Encoded Protein Kinase in Actin Reorganization and Nuclear Egress

1
Institut für Virologie, Robert von Ostertag-Haus, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag-Str. 7-13, 14163 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Applied Veterinary Sciences, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 501-1193 Gifu, Japan
3
Department of Life Sciences and Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Bingen, 55411 Bingen, Germany
4
Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joanna Parish
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by US3 gene (pUS3) of alphaherpesviruses was shown to modulate actin reorganization, cell-to-cell spread, and virus egress in a number of virus species. However, the role of the US3 orthologues of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) has not yet been studied. Here, we show that US3 is not essential for virus replication in vitro. However, growth rates and plaque diameters of a US3-deleted EHV-1 and a mutant in which the catalytic active site was destroyed were significantly reduced when compared with parental and revertant viruses or a virus in which EHV-1 US3 was replaced with the corresponding EHV-4 gene. The reduced plaque sizes were consistent with accumulation of primarily enveloped virions in the perinuclear space of the US3-negative EHV-1, a phenotype that was also rescued by the EHV-4 orthologue. Furthermore, actin stress fiber disassembly was significantly more pronounced in cells infected with parental EHV-1, revertant, or the recombinant EHV-1 expressing EHV-4 US3. Finally, we observed that deletion of US3 in EHV-1 did not affect the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of infected cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: US3; actin cytoskeleton; EHV-1; EHV-4; adhesion molecules; EM US3; actin cytoskeleton; EHV-1; EHV-4; adhesion molecules; EM
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Proft, A.; Spiesschaert, B.; Izume, S.; Taferner, S.; Lehmann, M.J.; Azab, W. The Role of the Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1) US3-Encoded Protein Kinase in Actin Reorganization and Nuclear Egress. Viruses 2016, 8, 275.

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