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Viruses 2016, 8(1), 4; doi:10.3390/v8010004

Exploring Reovirus Plasticity for Improving Its Use as Oncolytic Virus

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: E. Antonio Chiocca and Martine L.M. Lamfers
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [684 KB, uploaded 24 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Reoviruses are non-enveloped viruses with a segmented double stranded RNA genome. In humans, they are not associated with serious disease. Human reoviruses exhibit an inherent preference to replicate in tumor cells, which makes them ideally suited for use in oncolytic virotherapies. Their use as anti-cancer agent has been evaluated in several clinical trials, which revealed that intra-tumoral and systemic delivery of reoviruses are well tolerated. Despite evidence of anti-tumor effects, the efficacy of reovirus in anti-cancer monotherapy needs to be further enhanced. The opportunity to treat both the primary tumor as well as metastases makes systemic delivery a preferred administration route. Several pre-clinical studies have been conducted to address the various hurdles connected to systemic delivery of reoviruses. The majority of those studies have been done in tumor-bearing immune-deficient murine models. This thwarts studies on the impact of the contribution of the immune system to the tumor cell eradication. This review focuses on key aspects of the reovirus/host-cell interactions and the methods that are available to modify the virus to alter these interactions. These aspects are discussed with a focus on improving the reovirus’ antitumor efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: virotherapy; oncolytic viruses; oncolytic cell killing mechanisms; combination therapy; mammalian orthoreoviruses virotherapy; oncolytic viruses; oncolytic cell killing mechanisms; combination therapy; mammalian orthoreoviruses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kemp, V.; Hoeben, R.C.; van den Wollenberg, D.J.M. Exploring Reovirus Plasticity for Improving Its Use as Oncolytic Virus. Viruses 2016, 8, 4.

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