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Viruses 2016, 8(1), 1; doi:10.3390/v8010001

Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71

Virology Research Group, Vice Chancellor’s Office, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Belov
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Enterovirus Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [708 KB, uploaded 30 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1) vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs). The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design. View Full-Text
Keywords: Enterovirus 71; hand; foot and mouth disease; inactivated vaccine; viral like particles Enterovirus 71; hand; foot and mouth disease; inactivated vaccine; viral like particles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yee, P.T.I.; Poh, C.L. Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71. Viruses 2016, 8, 1.

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