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Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2242-2258; doi:10.3390/v6062242
Review

Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead

*  and
Program for Cell Enhancement and Technologies for Immunotherapy, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, and Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC 20010, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [682 KB, 30 May 2014; original version 27 May 2014]   |   Browse Figure

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically.
Keywords: Cytomegalovirus (CMV); Adoptive immunotherapy; T cell; immunotherapy; cellular therapy; transplant Cytomegalovirus (CMV); Adoptive immunotherapy; T cell; immunotherapy; cellular therapy; transplant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hanley, P.J.; Bollard, C.M. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead. Viruses 2014, 6, 2242-2258.

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