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Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1801-1822; doi:10.3390/v6041801
Review

Hantavirus Gn and Gc Envelope Glycoproteins: Key Structural Units for Virus Cell Entry and Virus Assembly

1,†
, 1,†
 and 1,2,*
1 Molecular Virology Laboratory, Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Av. Zañartu 1482, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780272, Chile 2 Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 237, Santiago 8320000, Chile These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 20 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Abstract

In recent years, ultrastructural studies of viral surface spikes from three different genera within the Bunyaviridae family have revealed a remarkable diversity in their spike organization. Despite this structural heterogeneity, in every case the spikes seem to be composed of heterodimers formed by Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins. In this review, current knowledge of the Gn and Gc structures and their functions in virus cell entry and exit is summarized. During virus cell entry, the role of Gn and Gc in receptor binding has not yet been determined. Nevertheless, biochemical studies suggest that the subsequent virus-membrane fusion activity is accomplished by Gc. Further, a class II fusion protein conformation has been predicted for Gc of hantaviruses, and novel crystallographic data confirmed such a fold for the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Gc protein. During virus cell exit, the assembly of different viral components seems to be established by interaction of Gn and Gc cytoplasmic tails (CT) with internal viral ribonucleocapsids. Moreover, recent findings show that hantavirus glycoproteins accomplish important roles during virus budding since they self-assemble into virus-like particles. Collectively, these novel insights provide essential information for gaining a more detailed understanding of Gn and Gc functions in the early and late steps of the hantavirus infection cycle.
Keywords: hantavirus; envelope; glycoprotein; cell entry; fusion; biogenesis; assembly; budding; structure hantavirus; envelope; glycoprotein; cell entry; fusion; biogenesis; assembly; budding; structure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cifuentes-Muñoz, N.; Salazar-Quiroz, N.; Tischler, N.D. Hantavirus Gn and Gc Envelope Glycoproteins: Key Structural Units for Virus Cell Entry and Virus Assembly. Viruses 2014, 6, 1801-1822.

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