Next Article in Journal
Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Human Infections: Overview and Proposal of Diagnostic Protocols Considering the Results of External Quality Assessment Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus
Previous Article in Journal
Genome Sequencing of West Nile Virus from Human Cases in Greece, 2012
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of a One-Step SYBR Green I Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantitation of Araraquara and Rio Mamore Hantavirus
Viruses 2013, 5(9), 2320-2328; doi:10.3390/v5092320
Short Communication

Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia

1,2,* , 1
,
3
 and
2
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 19 September 2013 / Published: 24 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [73 KB, 12 May 2015; original version 12 May 2015]

Abstract

Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3–6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time.
Keywords: Sin Nombre hantavirus; deer mouse; Peromyscus maniculatus; transmission; viral RNA; RT-PCR Sin Nombre hantavirus; deer mouse; Peromyscus maniculatus; transmission; viral RNA; RT-PCR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Bagamian, K.H.; Towner, J.S.; Mills, J.N.; Kuenzi, A.J. Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia. Viruses 2013, 5, 2320-2328.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert