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Arenavirus Budding: A Common Pathway with Mechanistic Differences
Institut für Virologie, Philipps Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-strasse 2, 35043 Marburg, Germany
Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2012; in revised form: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Abstract: The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that includes several agents responsible for important human diseases. Despite the importance of this family for public health, particularly in Africa and South America, much of its biology remains poorly understood. However, in recent years significant progress has been made in this regard, particularly relating to the formation and release of new enveloped virions, which is an essential step in the viral lifecycle. While this process is mediated chiefly by the viral matrix protein Z, recent evidence suggests that for some viruses the nucleoprotein (NP) is also required to enhance the budding process. Here we highlight and compare the distinct budding mechanisms of different arenaviruses, concentrating on the role of the matrix protein Z, its known late domain sequences, and the involvement of cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway components. Finally we address the recently described roles for the nucleoprotein NP in budding and ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) incorporation, as well as discussing possible mechanisms related to its involvement.
Keywords: arenavirus; budding; ESCRT pathway; matrix protein; nucleoprotein; late domain
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Wolff, S.; Ebihara, H.; Groseth, A. Arenavirus Budding: A Common Pathway with Mechanistic Differences. Viruses 2013, 5, 528-549.
Wolff S, Ebihara H, Groseth A. Arenavirus Budding: A Common Pathway with Mechanistic Differences. Viruses. 2013; 5(2):528-549.
Wolff, Svenja; Ebihara, Hideki; Groseth, Allison. 2013. "Arenavirus Budding: A Common Pathway with Mechanistic Differences." Viruses 5, no. 2: 528-549.