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Viruses 2013, 5(2), 470-527; doi:10.3390/v5020470
Review

Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

1,2,3
Received: 28 December 2012; in revised form: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
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Abstract: Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.
Keywords: virus; innate; PRR; inflammation; IFN; cytokine; therapy; ISG; immune-modulatory; antiviral; vaccine; human; TLR; RLR; DNA virus; innate; PRR; inflammation; IFN; cytokine; therapy; ISG; immune-modulatory; antiviral; vaccine; human; TLR; RLR; DNA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Melchjorsen, J. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines. Viruses 2013, 5, 470-527.

AMA Style

Melchjorsen J. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines. Viruses. 2013; 5(2):470-527.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melchjorsen, Jesper. 2013. "Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines." Viruses 5, no. 2: 470-527.



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