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HCV and Oxidative Stress in the Liver
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov str., 32, Moscow 119991, Russia
CRCL, INSERM U1052, CNRS 5286, Université de Lyon, 151, Cours A. Thomas 69424 Lyon, France
Department of Molecular Biology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 16 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Gamaleya Str. 16, 123098 Moscow, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2012; in revised form: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 28 January 2013
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the etiological agent accounting for chronic liver disease in approximately 2–3% of the population worldwide. HCV infection often leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, various metabolic alterations including steatosis, insulin and interferon resistance or iron overload, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multiple molecular mechanisms that trigger the emergence and development of each of these pathogenic processes have been identified so far. One of these involves marked induction of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected cells leading to oxidative stress. To date, markers of oxidative stress were observed both in chronic hepatitis C patients and in various in vitro systems, including replicons or stable cell lines expressing viral proteins. The search for ROS sources in HCV-infected cells revealed several mechanisms of ROS production and thus a number of cellular proteins have become targets for future studies. Furthermore, during last several years it has been shown that HCV modifies antioxidant defense mechanisms. The aim of this review is to summarize the present state of art in the field and to try to predict directions for future studies.
Keywords: hepatitis C; oxidative stress; Nrf2/ARE pathway; antioxidant defense; iron homeostasis; regulation
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Ivanov, A.V.; Bartosch, B.; Smirnova, O.A.; Isaguliants, M.G.; Kochetkov, S.N. HCV and Oxidative Stress in the Liver. Viruses 2013, 5, 439-469.
Ivanov AV, Bartosch B, Smirnova OA, Isaguliants MG, Kochetkov SN. HCV and Oxidative Stress in the Liver. Viruses. 2013; 5(2):439-469.
Ivanov, Alexander V.; Bartosch, Birke; Smirnova, Olga A.; Isaguliants, Maria G.; Kochetkov, Sergey N. 2013. "HCV and Oxidative Stress in the Liver." Viruses 5, no. 2: 439-469.