Viruses 2013, 5(10), 2349-2374; doi:10.3390/v5102349
Review

Evolution of Foamy Viruses: The Most Ancient of All Retroviruses

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Received: 5 August 2013; in revised form: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Foamy Virus (FV) Research)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that foamy viruses (FVs) are the oldest retroviruses (RVs) that we know and coevolved with their hosts for several hundred million years. This coevolution may have contributed to the non-pathogenicity of FVs, an important factor in development of foamy viral vectors in gene therapy. However, various questions on the molecular evolution of FVs remain still unanswered. The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal. Furthermore, animal studies might reveal important issues, such as the identification of the FV in vivo target cells, which than require a detailed characterization, to resolve the molecular basis of the accuracy with which FVs copy their genome. The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs. DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.
Keywords: foamy viruses; retroviruses; hepadnaviruses; evolution; genetic conservation; recombination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rethwilm, A.; Bodem, J. Evolution of Foamy Viruses: The Most Ancient of All Retroviruses. Viruses 2013, 5, 2349-2374.

AMA Style

Rethwilm A, Bodem J. Evolution of Foamy Viruses: The Most Ancient of All Retroviruses. Viruses. 2013; 5(10):2349-2374.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rethwilm, Axel; Bodem, Jochen. 2013. "Evolution of Foamy Viruses: The Most Ancient of All Retroviruses." Viruses 5, no. 10: 2349-2374.

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